Lecture 10: Organic Farming and Climate Change (Contd.)


So, Lecture 10. So, Organic Farming and Climate Change as
a continuing. So, here we will discussing the organic farming
as a key role in climate change mitigations or how we can mitigate the climate change
through organic farming. So, we will we will first we will learn about
the adaptations and mitigations in agricultural productions then we ah we will move smoothly
to organic farming as a climate change mitigations. If you talk about the adaptations and mitigations
ah as you say the ah climate change ah that has impact; that means, if the ah climate
change this including the climate variability. So, so this has a exposure then initial impacts
or the facts when we ah see the agricultural productions. So, there is impact of climate change then
ah every crops it has a autonomous adaptations. So, the crop also try to adapt to the rising
temperatures. And sometimes the farmers during the practice
agricultural practice so, they also be become ah adaptive to the ah usual clime ah climate
change; that is a autonomous adaptations then there is a residual or the net impact of climate
change. So, one is the the other side the impacts
then there is a vulnerability; vulnerability if you go for the economic assessment; that
means, so if there is a impact is a adverse effect on the agricultural productions. Then how vulnerable is your the food production
to climate change. So, it depends upon like examples of a in
in a particular locations. So, the farmers are growing mainly rice crops. So, more area under rice and also the for
some farmers grow wheat crops and wheat is very very less. Suppose 90 percent area is a diverted for
rice crops and 10 percent for wheat crops. The effect is much more on wheat as compared
to rice if you talk then you talk of vulnerability then that area maybe even though the impact
is less and rice, but there is a impact adverse effect, but the high area under rice a rice
rice secure is higher as compared to wheat. So, the farmers ah will be highly vulnerable
to climate change. So, their vulnerability assessments ah to
climate change; once we have then policy makers make the plant adaptations to through plant
adaptations the impact can be nullified can be reduced by the adverse impact of climate
change on the rice production or the food and production can be reduced through the
plant adaptations. So, in addition to the adaptations, so there
is mitigations; mitigation means so, our activity the management practices should be such that
so, there should be less emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. So, that is known as the mitigations. So, the adaptations and mitigations they should
go hand on hand. There should be adopting mechanisms so that
it should minimize the impact of climate change. At the same time there should be mitigation
strategy. So, that the so, that we don’t allow the climate
to change at a faster rate. So that means ah we concerns about the issues
of climate change result a in highlighting the two fundamental response strategies that
is mitigations and adaptations by the UNFCC; Unit Nations Framework Convention Climate
Change. So, the adaptation responses aim to alleviate
the adverse impact through a wide range of system specific actions and the mitigation
process seeks to limit the emission of greenhouse gases and enhance sink opportunities, so that
the climate does not change fast. So, looking at this adaptations and mitigations
if you see organic farming, the role of organic farming and the potential of organic farming
as a climate change mitigations. So, in general sequestering carbon in the
soil or the a croplands, grazing lands, graze lands and other agriculture’s are the highest
potential for the climate change mitigations. So, if you want if you can increase the carbon
sequestration soil, soil can be sink of the carbon dioxide. So, we can ah minimize the emission of greenhouse
gases atmosphere and so the the climate change. That means, a carbon sequestration ah lower
input of a fossil fossil fuels dependent resources and use of renewable energy; all ah present
opportunities for organic agriculture to lead the way in reducing energy consumption and
mitigating the negate negative effects of energy emission. Second organic agriculture provides management
practices that can help farmers adapt to climate change through strengthening agro–echosystems,
diversity of crops and diversifying crops and livestock productions and building farmers
knowledge base to best improveme[nt]- prevent and confront changes in climate change. So, we have discussed this also in detail
in previous classes ah as organic farming is an integrated farming system concepts where
we have the more number of crops crop diversifications and the livestock is an integral part of organic
farming. So, in this integrated farming systems, so
the the output or the byproduct of one component that becomes the input of other components
that is a zero emission concept concept or we can say no emissions. So, there is no waste, all the unfarmed biological
resources are utilized and it needs less ah ah off farm resources or a less energy for
this ah um products ah organic productions that way it can it can ah it can have a less
emissions or for the greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and that can that can we can say
organic farming as a key ah for the mini ah for mitigating the ah climate change by reducing
the a greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere. If you see the soil organic matter the the
sequestration of the soil organic matter, the climate change and this soil organic matter;
if you see there is a two schools of thoughts whether with the changing temperature and
the variable in precipitations what will happen to soil organic matter it may decrease or
increase. One school of thought that says argues that
climate change will cause soil erosion and degradations especially in developing countries
of tropics and subtropics. That means, so as we ah we are discussing
now with climate change so there is increasing number of high precipitation events. So, because of a high intensity precipitation
events increasing so that causes splitting of soil [parti/particles] particles and erosion
of the top soil layers; that means, degradation of the soil because top soils are a fertile
and top soils are rich in carbon. If there is a loss of top soil layers erosion
of soil through the ah water because of high intensity precipit[ation]- events. So, that cases loss of soil quality and loss
of soil organic matter. So, the soil erosion rate is a controlled
by erosive power of a rainfall because of a more ah ah extreme precipitation events
under climate change scenarios. So, 1 percent increase in precipitation is
a expected to lead to 1.5 to 2 percent increase in erosion rates. So, ah so that is why the accelerated erosions
will cause depletion of soil organic matter, further increase temperature and precipitation
will accelerate this loss of soil organic matter which is a great concern for low input
agricultural systems. So, this is a one school of thought. The other school of thought this says that
the second school of thought we can say that argues that CO 2 fertilization effect with
increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration would increase biomass productivity with more litter
and the crop residues returned into the soil and higher root mass and greater root exudations. So, because of the increasing root biomass
and increasing the soil rhizosphere activity, so this this should result in gradual increase
in soil organic matter. So, this is a contradictory. One says there will be a decrease in soil
organic matter and the other school of thought there maybe increase in soil organic matter
in future climate. So, however the net effect of climate change
would depend on adaptive options or use of the recommended management practices. So, I have to see the greenhouse gas emission
from by different sectors ah maximum being in energy supply sector that is a 25.9 percent. So, this includes your carbon dioxide, methane
and nitrous oxide and agricultural sector the also we discussed last class ah it contributes
around 13.5 percent of the total greenhouse gas emissions. So, if you see the among the agricultural
sector, the greenhouse gas emission maximum is from soil that is around 38 percent followed
by enteric fermentations from the livestocks, the ruminants ah say a 32 percent, followed
by biomass burning is around 12 percent, rice production contributes around 11 percent of
the total greenhouse gas emission from the agricultural sector and finally, the manures
ah handling around 7 percent. So, these are the scenario of the greenhouse
gas emissions from different sectors and in the agricultural sector from different components
the greenhouse gas emission. So, ah if you see the agricultural practice
or the greenhouse gas emissions, so nitrous oxide emission that is a high soluble nitrogen
level in soil from synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. So, use of the through chemical fertilizers
and as we discussed ah um the ah earlier class because the yield management improper management
unscientific management of this chemical a fertilizers specially nitrogenous fertilizers
that lead to emission of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. And we can see from the figure the the red
line shows nitrous oxide emissions in million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent after application
of the fertilizers. So, that is increasing over the years as we
progress because there is a increasing use of chemical fertilizers with increasing use. So, there is increasing emission of nitrous
oxides to atmosphere from this fertilizer applications. Moreover, when you are using fertilizer because
production of the fertilizer black line shows energy used for fertilizer productions this
much of CO 2 equivalent energy used for the fertilizer production; that means, that is
increasing use of energy for the production of fertilizer that also causes the global
warming emission of the greenhouse gas gases to atmosphere. So, this is the ah ah nitrous oxide emissions. Similarly, you can see the methane emissions. So, either the entering fermentations from
a ruminants like cow, ships and goats, then anaerobic turn over in rice pad is because
rice is grown under the flooded conditions standing a water. So, ah form the from this standing a water
rice field so there is a emission of the methane emission methane emission is a higher as compared
to the saturated conditions and the manure handling that also causes some methane emissions
in a manure productions and the management and biomass burning that is a slash and burn
agriculture we have the zoom agriculture in that case that emits both methane and nitrous
oxides to the atmosphere. And if you see the carbon di oxide emissions,
vegetations and together with the soil eco systems ah as a place for decomposition, so
generate large fluxes of carbon dioxide. According to IPCC, that is intergovernmental
panel on climate change this flux is nearly balanced agriculture because know the crop
or the perennial trees they also absorb carbon di oxide for a photosynthesis though there
is a release they also absorb. So, the. So, in that case the this is the balanced
the flux the ah of CO 2 from the vegetations is balanced in agriculture by moreover by
a sequestering carbon dioxide in soil agriculture may contribute to the carbon cycle in a positive
way. And the potential agricultural options you
can see for minimizing the greenhouse gas options ah green ah greenhouse gas emissions
those are the improved crop land management you have this as scientific nutrient management
that can minimize the greenhouse gas emission these we have discussed in previous classes
tillage and residue management conservation tillage minimum tillage and the incorporation
of crop residue and the soil that can minimize the emission of greenhouse gas of the atmosphere
then water management as we discussing. So, if you maintain the minimum water or the
economic use of water efficient use of water that can minimize the emission of greenhouse
gases if you go for a flooding like rice field if you go for the flooded rice that causes
anaerobic decompositions and more release of methane from the rice field. Rice does not require a standing water for
a higher productions only saturation is enough to maintain a good level of productions and
under a saturate conditions there will be less emission of methane as compared to flooded
rice. So, that is a new rice production technology
that is a system of rice intensifications where no standing water is maintained only
saturations or field capacity saturation is maintained to have a better productions with
a less emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere then restoration of a degraded
soils then agriculture can help to mitigate the climate change by reducing emission of
greenhouse gases. And at the same time by a sequestering carbon
di oxide from the atmosphere in soil and for this the potential of a organic farming for
both means reducing emission of greenhouse gases and for sequestering carbon dioxide
and soil is very very high. See organic farming as climate change mitigations
because reducing the emission of nitrous oxide inclusion of a leguminous crops. By adding leguminous crops or by putting crops
in a crop rotations, we can minimize we can reduce the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers. So, up to this ah the information a potential
nitrogen production by a leguminous plant by a intercropping and half season cropping
to be 154 million tons a potential which exceeds the nitrogen production from fossil fuel by
far and we and which is not fully exploited by a conventional farming technique. So, there is a great scope great opportunity
we can include leguminous ah crops in the crop rotations are the cropping system, so
that we can minimize the use of a synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers. Then diversified crop rotations with a green
manure crops, then organic manure soils are the aerated high aerated as compared to the
conventional ah um fertilizer managements or the chemical fertilizer and the because
of the more erosions they have the significantly lower mobile nitrogen. Then after So, I reducing methane emissions
we discussed avoid continuous flooding there should be only saturation in the rice feed,
we don’t need to flooding water to have a higher productions saturations ah well managed
water can give a good production high productions with less emission of greenhouse gases to
the atmosphere. And also the variety also there are some varieties
we can have a less ah emitting of the greenhouse gases. So, ah reducing carbon dioxide emission, so
different options we can use for how we can minimize the emission of carbon dioxide, organic
farming as we have discussed the way of ah reducing the CO 2 emissions and conservation
tillage agroforestry. So, this we the table shows how the the tillage
practices that can minimize the emission of greenhouse gases if you see the compare the
ah conventional tillage versus conservation tillage kg carbon equivalent per hectare per
years and these are the global warming potential components. So, a soil carbon sequestration for the conventional
tillage if you reference has a 0, in conservation that is a minus 337 kg carbon per hectare,
per year means this much carbon is a last to atmosphere through conventional tillage
and if you go for the conservations this carbon is a protected in the soil that is restored
in the soil that is sequestration soils if you go for the conservation tillage; that
is for the soil carbon sequestration say and if you go for the CO 2 emissions through a
agricultural inputs. So, this is ah the carbon emission is a higher
in case of the conservation tillage as compared to conventional tillage. In conservation is to around 202 kg per hectare
per year, in conventional 156 kg carbon per hectare per year this is because in agricultural
inputs ah application in conservation tillage are specially for the fertilizers that is
not well managed mainly spread on the surface soil that causes more emission of nitrous
oxide and also if you go for the conservation tillage as a less tillage we go for the more
application of the herbicides to control the wheat in conservation tillage, so in that
way there is a more emission of the greenhouse gases to atmosphere. And if you if you have to look at the machinery
machinery in case of the the higher emissions only conventional tillage because more use
of the farm machinery in conventional tillage. So, if you see the net flux in case of the
conventional tillage plus 228 kg carbon per hectare per year, if you go for the conservation
tillage it is a minus 112 and if you see the relative carbon flux looking looking at the
228 plus 112; that means, 340 kg carbon equivalent per hectare per year that is sequestered in
the soil in conservation tillage as compared to the conventional tillage. So, that is what the tillage practices also
one of the options and organic farming the ah we are discuss also we go for the conservation
tillage or the stubble mulch tillage, so that it can minimize the emission of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere. And if we give example how organic farming
as a as a global warming reducing global warming potentials the relative global warming potential
of a organic agriculture compared to conventional agriculture. So, one levels in European country they have
studied at the farm levels, ah at the experimental levels and also product levels. If you see the reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions, so, that is most of the cases. So, there is a decreasing greenhouse gas emission
or there is reduction greenhouse gas emissions in a organic farming as compared to conventional
farming. So, if you see here for the ah farm levels
to the two farms there is 18 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, similar ah ah
there is experimental levels in farm levels here the two farm shows there is a increasing
emission of a greenhouse gases. One farm shows plus 2 percen,t the other farm
shows plus 53 percent emission of greenhouse gases at atmosphere, but in the in crop level
you can see the many crops that shows that is a decreasing emission of greenhouse gases
to atmosphere in a organic farming as compared to conventional farming. If you take the example of those those farms
where there is a higher emission of greenhouse gases the atmosphere in a organic farming. Suppose these two farms you will take example
in one case 2 2 percent the other case 53 percent. So, this is without considering carbon sequestration;
that means, the amount of organic matter are added to soil that is not considered. All the cases it is not considered, the carbon
sequestration. For those farms if you see the carbon sequestration
in the soil in this this case again the emission becomes negative. If you see the right hand side this this ah
graph, for those farms the suppose 53 percent higher emission of greenhouse gas at atmosphere
in organic farming as compared to chemical farming carbon sequestration is not considered;
that means, amount of organic matter added to the soil in organic farming that is not
taken to account. If you take those into account then it becomes
negative minus 80 percent; that means, while considering carbon sequestration the organics
ah ah farming system that makes a huge ah reduction greenhouse gas emission of the atmosphere
as compared to chemical farming. Same in case of the other farm; in this case
if there there is 2 percent increase in greenhouse gas emissions if you don’t consider the carbon
sequestration, but if you consider the carbon sequestration there is 26 percent reduction
in emission of greenhouse gases. So, we have got from our Indian experiment,
from our group also we have seen the global warning potential of organic nutrient management
in rice. We have seen here we have different nutrient
management treatments we have been control means no ah no fertilizer is used and CF 100
where using chemical fertilizer at the 100 percent recommendation, VC 100 means we are
using vermicompost, at a 100 percent n recommendation and CF 50 VC 50 means the chemical fertilizer
are 50 percent and vermicompost are 50 percent, VC b 100 is the vermicompost 100 percent,
but the whole vermicompost applied at the time of showing of the crop and this VC is
the vermicompost whole is splitted in two bases; one at the time of showing the other
time a other a time of paniculnisations and the other treatments the crop residue, now
things added at the crop residue at the previous crop and this treatment is chemical fertilizer
50 percent with crop residue, here vermicompost 50 percent crop residue, here vermicompost
and also vermi . So, with this treatments we wanted to know
what is the carbon dioxide emission from this soil? That is kg carbon dioxide equivalent per hectare
per a crop cycle of around 5 months. So, if you see the different treatments here
chemical fertilizer shows the huge emission as compared to other organic fertilizers. So, the emission from chemical fertilizer
in ah around 5 to 6 months, around 3500 kg carbon dioxide equivalent per hectare. If you see the vermicompost the emission is
around 2000 kg carbon dioxide equivalent per hectare and also we calculated the kg carbon
dioxide released per kg of rice grain. The bottom figure if you see this one the
kg CO 2 release per kg of rice grain. In this case also chemical fertilizer shows
higher that is 0.8 kg around 0.8 kg carbon dioxide released per 1 kg of rice production. But if you see the vermicompost at the same
time it shows 0.4 or maximum of 0.4 to 0.5 kg carbon dioxide released per 1 kg of rice
production in case of the organic treated plots. And at the same time we are using 0.8 kg of
carbon dioxide per 1 kg of rice production in case of the chemical fertilizer plot. And also we compare this one assessment of
nutrient management as compared to chemical fertilizer for a different treatments ah ah
we in comparison with the chemical fertilizer as a normal usually farmers use chemical fertilizer. If you compare different ah organic treatments,
so, there is a yield loss if you see if you apply vermicompost at 100 percent n equivalent
bases the yield loss is 9 percent as compared to chemical fertilizer. However, the global warming potential reduction
is around 41 percent. Though there is a 9 percent yield loss, so
we reduce the greenhouse gas emission. So, we reduce the global warming potential
41 percent using organic nutrients and if you go for the integrations organic and chemical
together, in this case the yield loss is a 4 percent and the global warming potential
reduction is around 30 percent. So, either when you go for the management
practices, especially for rice crop, either you have to advice for the full vermicompost
or a integrated nutrient managements. So, that the yield loss is 4 to 9 percent
and there is a substantial reduction. In the global warming potential in case of
the ah other treatments, so there is a huge yield loss a 15 percent or a higher; we don’t
want to go for the other treatments ah there is yield loss is more than 15 percent. And when between the VC or the vermicompost
ah 100 percent or the integrations, so for my advice we can go for the integrations because
it will be to meet the vermicompost 100 percent you required around 6 tons of vermicompost
per hectare. ah In this case we need 3 tons. So, depending upon the resource if the resource
is limited we can go for the integrated nutrient management. So, that we can have the same yield as of
the chemical fertilizers and there is a ah around 30 percent reduction in global warming
potential. So, other way organic farming ah as climate
change mitigation; so, changing consumer behavior and diet production of meat require inputs
that are 7 times as high as the inputs needed to produce same quantity of non meat calories. That means, the greenhouse gas emission is
a highest in bit production that is a around 10 kg per kg of the bit; 10 ten thousand gram
of greenhouse gas is emitted per 1 kg of beef production followed by pork, poultry and egg
that is a around 2 to 3 kg of CO 2 ah equivalent per kg ah kg and followed by a milk exactly
1 kg carbon dioxide per 1 kg of milk productions. But if for the ah vegetables emission from
the plant foods generally below 500 gram carbon dioxide equivalent per kg of the plant based
products. So, in this case you can see; so, plant based
products they do a emit less carbon dioxides and whereas, the the beeps or this the ah
meat the meat meat based products they do produce the huge amount of ah greenhouse gas
emissions to the atmosphere. So, the other one the organic agriculture
aims at precisely this goal consumption of less processed products and increased consumption
of products like cereals potatoes pulses and oils oils. That means, if you are consuming more of the
processed products in that case there is a more we are we are we are contributing the
emission of greenhouse gases face products are better ah from the organic point of view,
then the finally, stop deforestations, so that you can ah minimize greenhouse gas emissions. So, in the final slide the performance of
organic farming as compared to conventional farming in context of a climate change; so,
wherever there is a negative one negative sign that is a slightly inferior. So, that is a yield level or the productivity
as we consider the the production or the productivity the the organic farming slightly infer the
slightly inferiors. So, there are the two sign two positive they
are the a single positive they slightly better; that means, global warming potential of productions
organic farming is better and further potential for improving the systems to climate change
organic farming is better. So, the plus or to a plus the signal and the
symbol of plus and plus two plus they clearly better; that means, the adaptiveness to climate
change, organic farming is clearly betters and also carbon sequestration in the soil
carbon in the increasing the soil carbon stock organic farming is a better options and definitely
better that is a soil erosion and degradation. So, through organic farming we can minimize
soil erosions and degradations ah. So, various ecological impact ecological diversity
in nature conservations water use efficiency and environments. So, that can be protected through a through
organic farming is a definitely better; that means, in brief focus a organic farming as
there is a climate change is certain. There is a rise in temperature, there is a
decreasing water availability for agricultural productions and that increasing carbon dioxide
concentration and in view of that we have in in this environments in this adverse conditions,
we have to go on increasing productions at the same time we have to see a better quality
productions at the same time we have to see a better environment. For this organic farming is as a key role
is a key candidate we can say for mitigating the climate change or for a ah better adopting
to climate change because organic farming that can minimize the water consumptions at
this is same time it can adapt well to climate ah climate change conditions and through organic
forming we can minimize a greenhouse gas emission to atmospheres, we can maintain a better environments,
we can make a we can have a good food productions with a better quality ok. Thank you.

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