So, welcome to the next lecture lecture 12
Vermicompost Production Technology, so as discussing last lecture . So, vermicompost
one of the efficient ah composting process where we in which the quality of the compost
by using earthworm . The earthworms are used for the decomposition
process and also the earth worm they can arc many engines hormones ah to the composts beds
ah during decomposition . That increases the quality of the compost for ah used for the
or some ah supplementing the neutron requirements of the crops .
So, ah so first of all what is vermicomposting if you see , so vermicomposting is a simple
biotechnological process of composting in which certain spices of earthworms are used
to enhance the process of waste conversion and produce a better end product . So, the
waste that means, the waste is converted to wealth through vermicomposting that means
so organic waste is converted to a suitable fertilizers or the organic fertilizers are
used in crop productions . Next the vermicompositing is the process of
recycling organic matter into nutrient rich composed using arms worms it is carried out
generally under aerobic condition . That means, as we discussed that this is aerobic composting
process and where this waste materials are suitably or the organic materials are suitably
converted into ah organic fertilizers using earthworms . Vermicompost is a sweet stable
organic manure produced to as vermicast by earthworm feeding an biological waste materials
earthworm on feeding on biological waste materials they are the ah vermicasts.
So, this is a stable organic manures and its efficient recycling process of animal agriculture
and industrial wastes , vermi compost is a mixture of worm cast , humus , live earthworms
and their cocoons. The major constituents are essential macro and micronutrients, enzymes,
vitamins , antibiotics, humic acids and growth hormones that means, the use of earthworm
in composting process. So, the earthworm body parts or the that contains enzymes the vermicast
vitamins antibiotics and also the exit of the earth worms rich in humus.
So, that is used as a good as a organic fertilizers and that can be applied to the crops and it
its contains less pathogenic or free of free of pathogen you can say . So, that can help
in ah growth and development of crops without use of any chemical fertilizer .
So, the earthworm bare the workforce in the vermicomposting process, so this was the earth
worm ecological groups there are three groups of earthworm. So, one is called the APJ epigeic
ah the other one is endogeic and third one is anecic. The epigeic earthworm this type
of earthworm they usually feed on litters they don’t feed on soil they feed on litters
. And they live on the liters and their pigmented reddish and brown pigmented and they only
consume the leaf materials or you can see liters. So, this epigeic earth worm that is
mostly suitable for vermicomposting process .
The second one that is endogeic this is the endogeic earthworm this is endogeic one . So,
this is a soil feeder they live in top soil top soil and there is no pigmentations in
this ah earthworm they usually feed on soil and those type of earthworm is not suitable
for vermicomposting process and the third one that is anecic earthworm .
So, the they live in the ah the sub soil layers deeper soils and their make the ah in soils
they ah they make the boil that the holes and tunnels they can leave. And they usually
leave at the they can feed the liters also they can feed on soil that the dual they liter
and soils. So, this earthworm also can be used for composting process.
So, main mainly the epigeic type of earthworm is used for the composting or you can was
also anecic, but not the endogeic endogeic earthworm .
To see the ah earth worm ecological group as you see , so epigeic endogeic and the anecic
this three groups the epigeic means the war the epigeic can from epi epi means top and
geic means earth . So, they are living on the top soils or they live on mainly they
live on the leaf litter with the leaf litter they live in the leaf litter and they degrade
they consume they feed on the leaf litters. And their sizes are very small size that is
1 to 7 centimeter and uniformly pigmented as a red and brown and lives in litter and
consumes ah decomposable organic matter. These examples are epigeic eisenia foetida this
is the earthworm the eisenia foetida that mainly used for the ah for composting process
in tropical and subtropical latitudes for the temperature goes may be around 40 degree
Celsius or more sometimes more than 40 degree Celsius.
The other earth worms they are also used for the composting that us a ah eutridus this
one and also ah peronyx spices that is also used for the composting process. And the other
group of earthworm endogeic this is not suitable for composting they are the ah top soil ah
dwellor the endow means in and geic means earth.
So, they live in the soils and they feed on the soils only they don’t feed on the leaf
litters this endogeic type of earthworm . Their sizes small to large that is it 2 to 12 centimeter
and this is a weekly pigment and are no pigmentation in this type of earthworm they live in burrows
in organic mineral complex of soils and ah they consume and the soil they feed on the
ah soil only. So, these are the few examples of the endogeic earthworm and the last one
that is anecic spices the anecic earthworm .
So, there is nothing known about the name of this earthworm, but these are very large
in size its around 8 to 15 centimeter and they are also brown pigments in this earthworm
. They live in the vertical burrow in soil , but they feed in litters they can carry
litters from the top soil to the bottom soil they feed on the litters and the casting any
surface and . So, this type of earthworm are also can be used for the composting process
. But predominantly the epigeic spices of earthworm
either eisenia foetida and this arduous and the pery perionyx spices they are used for
the composting process vermi vermi composting process .
And why go for vermi composting because it is an important sort of source of organic
manures helps in recycling any organic waste into useful bio fertilizers and leaves no
chance of environmental pollution there is least pollutions in vermicomposting. An eco-friendly
non-toxic product consumes low energy input while ah processing that improves ah physical
chemical and biological properties of soils ah without any residual toxicity and also
ah that reduces the incidence of pest and disease in crop production .
And improves the quality of the agricultural produce are the contents many type of the
ah bio compounds like the enzymes hormones polyphenol growth growth hormones. That helps
that supports in the growth of the crops and increase in the content of secondary metabolites
using the ah vermicompost that helps in improving and having the better quality of the produce
. So, if you see the the process of composting
ah these are the ah steps . So, as we discussed you should know the for the composting process
what type of waste materials should be taken and and the mixing of the waste materials
with the cow dung the phase cow dung they make a slurry with waste material cow dung
. So, type of waste materials available in the
locality and also the the ratio of the waste materials and the cow dung can be mixed together
. So, after proper mixing of this this this so so where we can be mix the waste materials
with the cow dung after proper mixing they can be loaded on the beds .
So, on the vermi compost bed this can be loaded after loading then we have to ah relay the
earthworm based on the moisture and temperature content or the earth the vermicompost bed
. Then say the next step is maintenance of moisture and temperature in bed and the release
and earthworm release . So, there after there is a turning off the
ah waste material, so that the the temperature can be can be maintained can be judged and
then the matured finally, it takes around ah two months or 60 days for maturity of the
compost. Then you have to judge the maturity of the com compost based on the color of the
compost granules size and the c n ratio of the compost and we will go up ah next to go
for the harvesting that is you have separate the earthworm then you go for the processing
means you are drawing and the packaging operations. So, ah if you go to the first one the waste
the waste type of waste the waste characteristic . That means, the waste can be used the animal
manures or the oil seed residuals fish manure industrial waste fish manures or the industrial
wastes like potato potato industry waste ah bag bag . So, those ah waste materials having
low CN ratio less than 19. So, the ah either the industry where the potato
industry any food industry waste materials or the animal manures oil seed residuals having
C N ratio less than 19 . That means, they have the higher end content that the most
suitable for the vermicomposting process and that can give the vermicompost with high end
content . The other waste material is a vegetable waste
or the food processing waste including pulses ah oil seeds tea or kitchen waste green and
succulent crop waste and weed biomass and green manures having same ratio higher than
19, but 19 to 30 within that range they are also ah moderately suitable for the composting
process. And even the waste materials like water hyacinths stubbles and the crop wastes
twigs and crop foliage the same ratio around 30 to ah 85 they are also moderately suitable
for composting . And the waste material like saw dust and the
coir waste the they having the very high C N ratio and that is more than 90 or 2.5 and
50 . So, they are less suitable for composition process, but however, this waste materials
can be used for composting provided we can suitably use the fungus that select the fungus
can be used. So, that they can decompose its cellules and reduce the composting period
periods for the specially for the saw dust and the coir wastes .
And mixing up a waste materials so yeah in this case , so a when you either tank where
you can put the waste materials the ah waste mixture animal and the plant based organic
waste are generally ah mixed together. So, while mixing which we should see the type
of waste materials and the CN ratio of the waste materials. So, we should make the mix
of waste materials , so that C N ratio ah should be in the range 30 to 40 is to one
. Before mixing the plant was generally under
goes such because as we discussed size reductions by cutting or the crushing machines we are
studying. So, we can ah keep the size around 3 to 5 centimeters , so after size reduction
the plant based organic waste are mixed with animal waste was like cow dung . So, there
is a mix of the ah waste materials or that the plant or the crop residues or the plant
residues with the cow dung . And for ah increasing or the rate of the compositions
for hastening the decomposition process . So, we can you can use the ah composed oscillators
, so those are the cellulolytic and lignolitiic microorganisms they can be added to the waste
mixtures . So, that they can ah increase the rate of decompositions and ah reduce the composting
periods. The proportion of the ah cow dung in ah waste mixture should be 30 percent that
means, the minimum 30 percent cow dung is used while mixing the waste materials .
If there is unlimited supply of cow dung the maximum proportion of cow dung can go up to
70 percent, but not beyond that . That means so, it should be 30 percent minimum and 70
percent maximum ah cow dung should be mixed with the waste materials when you go for the
vermi composting. And now we will show you a a video of showing
the how the waste materials ah are are mixed and their also ah loaded in the compost beds
. And the when you mixed waste materials in prepare a phrase cow dungs slurry and the
cow dungs slurry is mixed with the waste materials and after that they are loaded in the compost
bed . So, ah these are the qualities of good compost
, so if you ah not prepare if you are the waste materials and the conditions inside
the compost bed we can get a quality which can meet the requirement for this organic
farming . And ah we will discuss now the finally, so what is the benefits of compost application.
If it is the benefits compost is a storehouse of energy for growth and multiplication of
microbes and their activity in soil which is whittle for plant nutrient cycling .
It supplies both macro and micronutrients then it provides the growth promoting substances
which stimulates only plant growth . And it act as a soil conditioners ah as it improves
the physical condition of soil such as soil tilth soil tilth means it is equal proportion
of macro and the micro pores then that influence the water holding capacity of soils of course,
catenation capacity. So, that is there those are regulated with
having the higher adding the ah compost . The compost it is a pathogen free as all the pathogens
are killed at high temperature then increases the biological activity of soils and produce
crops ah growth with the less disease because addition of compost is a pathogen free it
can give a disease free or the pest free environments .
So, these are the some of the benefits of composed applications , so while making the
compost and the applying . So, you should be very careful and the ah meeting the principles
of the compost preparation ok. Thank you .