So, welcome for the lecture 13. So, last lecture we discussed about the waste materials, what
type of waste materials should be used for the composting process. And the mixing of
the waste materials and the loading and the compost bed .
So, this lecture discussing about the structure of the compost bed , how we can the length
, width, thickness and the materials used for composting . And the ah ah the type of
different different either the play plastic sheets or the cement structures .
So, looking at the ah the structure of the ah compost beds .
So, ah these are the ah schematic diagrams showing the how the compost bed can be prepared.
The compost bed the size should be ah the see the length ah width and depth , each bed
should have the 10 to 15 feet of length. 3.5 to 4 feet of width, and depth 1 to 1.5 feet.
So, these are the ah ah individual beds you can see here the left hand sides showing . So,
each bed has 10 feet length , and 3.5 to ah 4 feet of width and the depth is around 1
to 1.5 feet. And further slope is made around 2 to 4 percent slope. So, the beds can be
prepared in a row and the both the sides . So, with a with a slanted slope with the rooftops
can we have the as the asbestos sheet , or it can be also thatched with a straw ah with
the straw . And the purpose of the keeping so, this slope on the both sides. So, that
the water can be drain in the both the directions . And the slope can be made each bed can have
a slope in this direction the arrow show this slope.
So, that here is a hole ah opening holes for each beds . So, the lich lechers from the
beds can be collected , and there is a tank that is for the collection of the lechers
in the tank, that is say as the vermi ah wash or the vermi bed wash ah. That is this is
also used for the ah first praying in the crop canopy ah, it act as a ah insecticides
or the pesticides , and also it is adds some of the nutrient to the crops .
So, ah this structures are can be prepared the the the floor can be cemented. Or you
can have a a plastics sheets also using plastic sheets. Or we can have the ah a plaster the
ah slope with the with the modes and over that we can use the ah plastic coverings . So,
the purpose is that the floor should be such that there should not be any leaching of the
ah nutrients or the liquids to the the ground ground.
So, because everything is useful for the compost productions or the in the compost as a lechers
or may the ah materials that can be used as a ah vermi made wash ah, used as a string
as insecticide and pesticides also . So, that that has many ah micron nutrients also enzymes
and hormones as a growth regulators . So, ah we can have the ah depending upon the
type the number of beds you can make you can have the now the this this figure shows up
100 beds ah on the both the sides. So, ah 50 50 and 50 one side and 50 on the others
other sides. And the the tank is in the centers , and the slope is made such a way that the
lechers are collected and that lechers are collected in this tank in this tank .
And this is ah so, this type of structure there are many structure the length we can
vary from as we discussed here . So, the different type of structures is available .
Ah this is the bamboo, made of bamboo. So, these structure can be ah made bamboo from
the both sides . And the whole is given at the at the slope end so, that the lechers
can be collected. And the whole entire structure is erased with
the bamboo or we can have a this one is a cement bed . Cement beds where the the the
with the bricks and the cements. And there will be no ah leaking to the ah bottom the
bottom . And is the the top portion is with the with a asbestos sheet or we can have a
ah thatched roof . And the the this one is made with a plastic
beds, similar size plastic beds are availables . So, that can be kept on the rest platform
, and the composting can be at the compost materials can be loaded there ah. This is
only thing the this has cheap initially cheap ah, but thing is that in the it it may last
for the 5 ah 5 to 6 years. And more over the this is the growth of the
earth worms, that usually better in case of the either the bamboo or the cement ah structure
as compared to the plastic beds. But this is a economically initially for starting
with , it is a less expensive as compared to the ah cement. But later on somebody course
for the commercial scale it has to be converted permanent structure like a cement bed .
Then the different types of structures also available. So, that is a ah multi-tier structure.
So, where we can have the the beds as just taken one one ah 1 over other other. So, these
are the ah bamboo, but they have made the 2 beds , in 1 place with the bottom one in
the I n the top one . Similarly, this is also a button and these
are these are top and top one, top one . And the covering can be made as a plastic sheets
or we can have a straw this type of a straw . Straw ah touching or you can have a asbestos
sheets ah to cover is protect the ah because to do not have because the earthworms , they
do not love lights . There should not any a solar radiations also
temperature , this is not be very and moisture to protect from the compost from the high
temperature moisture and radiations . We should have a protections , either you can have asbestos
sheets, or the as a permanent once or you can have a thatched thatched roof with the
with the straws ah. Or in temporarily there is a plastic covering also is done. And here
also one of the model of the ah the multi multi tier ah compost beds .
Ah Loading of wastes mixture and earthworm in the beds. So, the waste materials immediately
after mixing or after free de compositions are loaded in the ah bed in a heap with an
maximum height of 1.5 feet. So, I have the compost the feet depth is 1.5 to 2 feet depth
, depth is there . So, we can load up to 1.5 feet so, increasing
height what happens the it may the compost, because the layer below ah, that may not be
de compost well because of the ah less areas that may have the honorable condition to have
a better variations insights though 1.5 feet is convenient one .
So, there after thin layer of cow dung is placed on the surface of the waste materials.
So, that this is as starter food for earthworm once you load the ah the compost materials
with the mixing with the ah phase cow dung as a 30 percent minimum or maximum can be
ah 70 percent. Depending upon the ah waste the cow dung availability .
So, after loading so, there will be a thin layer of a phase cow dung . So, that act as
a starter food for the microorganisms soils and also ah for the earth worms . So, this
will be show you might have seen in the video as you have shown earlier ah.
So, in the bed after checking the inside temperature, the temperature should not exceed 35 degree
Celsius of the heap mat ah the the bed , then earthworms are released on the surface of
the bed ah. And the amount is ah minimum 2 k g per bed or 2,000 to ah 2,005 and numbers
for bed; however, if available in the maxima maximum quantity can be up to 10 k g .
So, this also we can have shown you in the video that after loading the compost materials
ah or the waste mat waste materials organic waste mixed with the cow dung , on the compost
width how the earthworms are released on the ah surface of the beds. And immediately after
release of earthworm the earthworms enter inside, because they do not like the son,
they love the sets they enter in sides and they do start on doing their job as a degradations
of the waste materials . Ah Of course, we can have a worm as a mother
bed so that we can we can grow the you can melt multiplication of the worms , we have
to separate mother beds and with a at most cares the very precise maintenance required
for the mother bed for earring the earthworm and for there multiplications ah.
For multiplications so, healthy earthworm is ah seed the mother beds is must the . The
size of the mother beds are the is may be box size of 2 feet length 1.5 feet width and
0.75 depth. Or it can be a bed also , the bed size is around 12 feet length, 4 feet
width and the one feet depth ah are considered for this ah multiplications of the earth worms.
And for this the waste material should be green biomass, you do not use a dry one , not
the green biomass. And usually the C N ratio can see that around 30 to 40 ah is to one
that will the best materials, but should be green . And this will mix the cow dung 50
50 ratio mixed with the ah cow dung and this waste .
Then earth worm around 500, this is a bug size or 4 kg is a bed size are released to
the ah bed or the box depend on the box size. And the bed size for bed size of 12 feet length,
4 feet width and one feet depth. Around 4 kg earth worms are released, and the box around
500 ah number of astray they released . Then a cover placed on the box or the bed
with the either gunny bag or insulating sheets so that it can maintain the moisture and temperature
inside the ah mother beds . So, that is very, very important to see the ah moisture and
temperature in case of the ah winter season, you want to maintain the temperature either
ah straw bedding ah is also ah is given as insulating materials so that temperature can
be maintain insides. And in case of the ah summer season also , we
make the the gunny bags or the straw then we can regular watering so that the moisture
and temperature can be maintained inside the mother bed .
Then the cover provides a dark conditions for encouraging the worms to ah come to the
surface ah formatting meting besides maintaining ideal ah and the moisture labels ah, from
ideal conditions and moisture labels in the box . The production cycle in the box are
the bed will vary from 50 to 60 days depending on the species season en environmental conditions
and the feed materials . Say provide the feed materials a green materials
, and the proper ah environmental conditions that is a moisture temperature inside the
mother beds . And ah we can we can make the ah the earthworm multiplications may be 2
or 3 times a multiply with in the span of the ah 2 months .
Ah Well so, then ah in the bed also when you go on adding this waste materials for ah increasing
the rate of de compositions ah. For fastening the process of de compositions or to have
a quicker ah vermi compost in the certain the vermi composting time periods , we can
innoplate with as a microbial innoplants , that is a vermi compost oscillators .
So, this micro organism multiplied ah in the laboratory ah, and they mixed with the organic
waste thoroughly before putting them in the vermi bed , sum input and fungus these are
the ah p ah pu ah fusis porus species , or the p ah crysosporium species , trichoderma
viride and the bacillus polymixa . So, these are the ah microorganisms they are
inoculated in the compost bed ah. So, that the ah you can you can have a better decompositions
ah, early decomposition quicker decompositions and the composting periods can be ah reduced.
And also this this micro organism trichoderma virides act as a as a also be spread in the
crop field . So, that is the ah predator they can as a bio bio agent taken control many
ah pathogenic pest and deceases , and also ah besides the enrich the value of compost
. Ah And after that we need the maintenance
of ah moisture in the compost bed , usually for melting mode moisture is the sprinkler
systems in the compost beds . So, the moisture is around 60 to 80 percents . Because the
vermi compost the earthworms body is contents around more than 90 percent moistures .
So, to have the comfortable growth of the earthworm the moisture content should be around
60 to ah 80 percent. And temperature in the range of 20 to 35 degree Celsius for the better
growth ah. Regular supply water in bed watering can be done by manually or by installation
of the automated sprinkler systems ah , as and when the ah temperature ah maintain the
temperature and moisture on the beds . However, the tolerance limit of temperature
differs with the type of earthworm species . For stability ah of the optimum temperature
and moisture in the bed ah both on ah extreme or a and temperate climate , the bed can be
covered with an insulating materials as we discussed in the mother mother bed; like,
gunny bag , coconut coir mat ah, with with the moistening at ah regular intervals .
So, this can be spread on the compost beds . So, as you can you can put moistures . So,
they can keep moisture for longer periods so that can facilitated that can provide a
better environments for the growth and multiplication of the earthworm , activity of a earthworm
and also other microbial organisms like a messebollic bacteria, they are they are used
for the ah decomposition of the cellulose or insulate materials present in the ah organic
materials . So, after that ah we can we will also ah we
have shown a video how the watering is done in the vermi composting in the beds . And
you can you can be also automations, when the temperature or the moisture goes certain
levels . So, there is a ah auto regulations so the the sprinkler system can operate off
automatically . So, after the ah specific periods , when the
ah compost comes ready to mature ah with the span of around 50 to 60 days, then we can
judge the maturity of the compost. For judging maturity so, there are the we have to study
the physical characteristic of the vermi compost, and we we have to study the chemical characteristic
and the biological properties which are vermi compost .
So, vermi compost sample can be brought to laboratory . So, there you can have the color
or the particle size , you can see and also you can see the pH, C N ratio of the materials
and the nutrient contents as a macron and micro nutrients and the humus content present
in the vermi compost . And the biological characteristic like the
enzyme activity and the microbial community also ah, that can be ah analyzed in the laboratory
accordingly the quality can be judged , as a as we discussed the quality of the compost
and the quality of the vermi compost can be seen after the lab analysis .
So, let us discuss about the vermi compost production technology. So, here we will be
explaining about the waste material, size of the waste materials and mixing of the waste
materials with the cow dung slurry . Loading of the waste materials in the vermi compost
bed followed by release of earthworms . So, regarding the waste materials so, you can
ah see here ah we have different type of waste materials.
So, this is the phrase grasses or the wheats and we have also ah, this is a straws dried
straw materials, this serial straw rice straw and these are the whets.
So, this straw materials can be cut into small pieces around 3 to 5 centimeters . And this
is also same we have of cut on smaller pieces by increase by decreasing the size. So, it
helps in the better decompositions and it can also minimize the period of the vermi
compost you can have the vermi compost in the ah quicker ah certain times . So, it it
facilitate the ah better de curve ah the consumptions by the earthworm by increasing the surface
area of the waste materials by making the sized of some .
So now, you can see we have a 50 vermi compost beds . So, this side you have the 25 beds
and the other sides we have 25 beds . And the channel in betweens ; the channel
is located to collect the vermi wash from the ah beds from the opposite directions . The
bed is of the this side you can see 10 feet length , this is around 4 feet width .
And the depth is around 1.5 feet , and also we have given a slept here; at the bottom
of the ah beds so that it it helps for collection of the liquid wash a vermi wash , and the
vermi wash can be collected and as we discussed the vermi wash also useful ah for the application
spray on the crops as a ah as a insect insecticides ah, cons a bio insecticides a ah bio pesticides
. And also it also supplies many nutrients , macron
micron nutrients for the growth of the crop . So now, will be explaining how will be showing
the demonstrations , how the waste materials can be mixed with the cow dung slurry , and
that can be loaded in the vermi compost bed .
So now, ah I will show you the how the waste materials can be mixed with the cow dung slurries
. And the loading of the waste materials in the vermi compost bed , and if you want to
have a enriched vermi compost, we need to ore the natural minerals like a rock phosphate
dolomites, or the basis glass that can be added during the composting process .
So, ah during the ah mixing of the waste materials with the cow dung slurry so, those waste materials
can be added. After the loading the whole waste materials in the beds, then we we we
can have a thin layer of the phase cow dung on the bed. So, this was this supplies the
ah food materials for this earth worm . So, after ah loading in the beds we can leave
the beds for ah at most one weeks so that it can go for decomposition . Or if you have
the p de compression waste material that can be added , that can be the material can be
kept in a separate tank for the free decompositions ; after de composition those materials can
be filled in the vermi compost bed . And after loading in the bed earthworm should
be released, you have to say check the temperature in the bed , the temperature should be below
35 degree Celsius . If temperature is above 35 degree Celsius, it should not release the
earthworm in the bed because earthworm cannot survive with the high temperature .
So, ah now we will show you the the loading of the ah waste materials in the bed, and
mixing of the ah natural rock minerals in the waste materials. And then they have final
layer of the ah thin layer of the phase cow dung followed by release of earthworm give
a special specialty earthworm will show you how you are releasing .
So, this is the mixing of the waste materials with the cow dung slurry and loading in the
bed . So, this cow dung slurry is mixed the waste material because if you make it very
succulent and the moist . So, it will be ah helpful for the better consumptions by the
earth worms . Earth worm do not love, like the dry conditions . So, by making it a weight
and also the mead the slurry cow dung that provides the ah food materials for the for
the . So, the amount of the cow dung slurry could
be minimum 30 percent and maximum 70 percent of this ah weight of the waste material . So
now, you are observing that how there ah mixing these this, just should be well mix the slurries
should be well mixed with the waste material ah. Thin layer of phase cow dung can be spread
over this bed . So, this is the phase cow dung that is spread over the bed, because
this cow dung will supply the food materials for the earthworm .
So, this cow dung is with the initial food materials is the earthworm get the food materials
for it is work from this phase cow dung , and it is a high it contains ah most of the macro
and micro . So, this should be spread over this bed and uniformly this should be spread
so that the earthworm get the food materials and we can do a earthworm they can we can
do their activity . After spreading the the vermi the ah cow dung,
we can leave the bed for one week so that the waste material can decompose .
If have the free decompose waste materials, then we can immediate, we can release the
earthworm. For releasing the earthworm the temperature should be 35 degree Celsius or
lowers. So, depending upon the temperature of this inside the materials. So, we can ah
decide whether to release the earthworm or not. The temperature is less than 35 degree
Celsius so, we can go on releasing the earthworm. So now we will be showing you how to ah release
the earth worm, because earth worm they do not like the light conditions . The moment
you release the earth worm on the beds , they the earth worms go inside and they can do
there job they can decompose the ah waste materials ah in the as you have loaded in
the bed . So now, we will show you the the loading of the or the release of the earth
worms into the vermi compost bed . Here see the earth worm eisenia fetida, and
this will be releasing into the bed . So, the moment you release the earthworm is
there is the go inside the bed. They love the dark; they do not love the light conditions
. So now, will show you how the releasing the earthworm in the beds . Now you can see
that how the earthworm are moving into the bed . Within a few minutes you will not see
any earthworm on the bed, they can go inside . We can see there movement so, they are trying
to enter into the bed. And they can go out of the light as you can see there inlomps
and they are moving into the bed . So, they needs a proper atmosphere, proper temperature,
proper moisture for their proper growth and development and for their activity for decomposition
of this waste materials. So, usually the bed there should be at least
60 percent moisture should be maintained. Temperatures less than 35 degree Celsius.
And for ah then they can leave better, they can multiply in the bed, and they can ah decompose
the waste material faster . As you can see so they are going they are entering into the
bed . Slowly, slowly they will go inside the bed . The proper moisture in the vermi compost
bed as we discussed they are should be around 60 percent moisture . So, we have the micro
sprinkler system . So now we can see so, we can use this sprinklers
ah to regulate the moisture content in the vermi compost bed .
So, as for the need of the ah very dry ness conditions we can use the sprinklers , the
moisture content can be maintained as per our requirement. And because your maintaining
moisture good moisture. So, the lichens as the vermi wash ah so, those are collected
. So, ah you can as discussing about this a vermi wash , see ah you see the vermi wash
. Ah That is collected from this bed nutrients
, vitamins , hormones and enzymes. This can be spread on the crop canopy by mixing with
water by one is to 5 tens ; that means, one part of the ah vermi wash and 5 parts of water.
One liter of vermi wash 5 liter of water that can be mixed. And that can be spread above
the crop canopy. Also this can be applied in the crop field in the soil itself . So,
that can supply nutrients also increase the ah quality of the health of this soil. The
require the enrichment of specific type of nutrients like can say the prosperous for
this leguminous crops ah or the potash for this say potato need higher amount of potash
also . For those crops we can add the ah specific natural minerals.
So, they can increase the value , and it can have a better impact higher impact on the
growth and yield and quality of this crops. So, ah after loading it me it almost takes
2 months for maturity of the compost. Now I can show you a ah mature compost you see
the initial loading, when the compost becomes ready this looks this is the ah bed you can
see is a matured compost. And if the this is just like a granule you
can see the compost . As a granular shapes and it takes almost 60 days ah to get to come
to this positions . And here this consistency more or less , there is no smells and in the
moisture contents around 25 percent . So, after this they can you can go for the
processing and then packaging. So, ah we will discuss ah the next class ah how the; how
the separations of the earth worms from this vermi compost and then, the drying and the
packaging ah already vermi compost. Thank you.