Lecture 15 : Enriched Vermicompost Production Technology


So, I welcome ah you all for the lecture 15
ah Enriched Vermicompost Production Technology. So, last lecture we have discussed about the
conventional vermicompost production technology; that means, the use of the waste materials
structure of the beds, mixing of the waste materials and, this is a process of ah maintenance
and harvesting of vermicompost for the conventional vermicompost production.
So, today we will be discussing about the enriched vermicompost production technology;
that means, when there is a need to increase ah food and production to meet the demand
of the growing populations, how we can enhance for improve the quality of the organic manures
so, that they can meet the the nutrient requirement of the crop. .
So, as you know we discussed also earlier classes. So, ah um so, the number of peoples
they are going to be increasing with the ah hungers adding the hunger, ah populations
ah in the 21st century, if you see the sub Saharan Africa. So, currently around 20 15
populations at the risk of hunger this is going to increase by ah up to 350 million
ah million. Similarly in assia currently 200 million populations at the risk of hunger
are as you say food insecurity and, this population is going to increase ah up to 250 million
by 20 25. So, ah so, there is a need to increase the
food infections the options for the chemical farming as you see. So, ah there is increase
in the use of the a nitrogen and prophetic fertilizers, also there is increase ah in
the exploitation of the ah groundwater that irrigations and, also increase in use of the
chemical pesticides; however, the food productions ah has ah at a ah recent years is ah either
constants, or in somehow are decreasing trend this is due to the soil erosions and the ah
salinity and frequent use of the fertilizers and the ah pesticides and, increasing cost
of the ah productions and the environmental pollutions increasing the global warming.
So, to about this as you discussings organic farming is one of the options the key candidate,
how to ah maintain the food and productions are the improve the food grain production
in a sustainable environment. So, ah for this organic farming ah we need to ah make the
value additions; that means, we have increased the contents of the nutrients in ah organic
manures by adding the ah nutrients ah the ah by the natural sources are from the biological
ah sources. So, if you see the sources of why why ah whether
enriched vermicompost is required why do you need for the enriched the vermicompost, because
know in general the organic manures like the farmers manures, for the compost for vermicompost,
they contains on an average 0.5 to 1.5 percent nitrogen 0.22 0.8 percent P 2 O 5 and 0.52
percent K 2 O. And this ah so, small amount of ah ah neutrient contents in the organic
manures and, if you if apply very less amount of the . So, they may not meet the nutrient
demand of the crop. So, that is why so, we we are not able to meet the production levels
with such the organic manures, or the conventional manures which contains less amount of ah N
P K and other nutrients. ah For example, you can see ah if a for a
particular graph ah at if supply hundred kg nitrogen per hectare, to get the ah maximum
productions from example rice crop for a medium fertile soil, usually recommend around hundred
kg nitrogen per hectare that is through chemical fertilizers. And if the same hundred kg nitrogen,
if you want supply through organic manures, which contains very less nitrogen around 0.5
to 1.5 percent nitrogen, you need around huge huge quantity of organic ah manure that is
7 to 20 tons per hectare. So, ah the availability is make the question,
because whether we can supply huge amount of organic fertilizers to meet the new trend
demand of the crop. So, you you need to seven term per hectare if the nutrient content the
N content is 1.5 percent. So, in this case if you enrich the compost with nitrogen if
somehow we can increase the nitrogen content up to 3 percent, then we can minimize we can
reduce the the compost requirement up to 3 to 3.5 tons per hectare. So, that is the purpose
ah why go for the enrichment of the vermicompost by the way you can minimize requirement, at
the same time we should maintain the products level so, that we cannot sacrifice the loss
of production. So, this demerits of manures can be overcome
to certain extent, to preparation of enriched vermicompost as you say, ah by adding natural
or the biological sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for improving the quality ah
ah of the ah of the vermicompost. Or moreover the waste with the different ah nutrient rich
substance opening a ah new direction of the technological up gradation for improving the
quality of ah ah the vermicompost ah the nutrient status of the vermocompost.
In modification of vermicompost is done, either by microbial enrichment ah or by fortifying
with the natural ah rock minerals ah and the agricultural waste, they are rich with with
specific nutrients. So, those materials can be added the vermicomposting process so, that
we can increase the value or the nutrient content of the vermicompost, to meet the demand
of the crops and ah to attain a particular production level.
So, these are the as the figures we are saying this is how the the advantage of having the
enriched vermicompost, because we having the enrich new compost, or enriched vermicompost
we can have a more productions more fruits and more plants. So, we can have a better
decease control and, this is a this contains the enzymes and the plant growth regulators
and hormones also there, because the earth we are work with the working with worms earth
worms are the present in the earth worm body secretions, they contains many enzyme vitamins
and the hormones. . And also the quality of the ah the product
that is a better with enrich composed and the largest size of the ah the fruits, or
vegetables that increases size with the better quality of the vermicompost. And, and there
is a increasing and the population of the microbes and the we can have the ah faster
growth rates and the higher concentration like, ah the microorganism present soil, they
can make the soil fertility ah they can keep the soil fertile for long run.
But you see the nutrients natural sources of the ah ah natural sources contains the
nutrient enrichments. So, those are some other examples of the ah either nitrogen enrichment
of the phosphorus enrichment, or the potassium enrichment, or the calcium, magnesium, what
are the natural sources available, which can be mixed with organic waste for increasing
the nutrient contents. So, for nitrogen the natural sources are the
ah oil cakes like, your mustard cakes which contains around 5.3 percent nitrogen and the
ground nut cake around 7.3 percent nitrogen Neem cake 5.2 percent, nitrogen Karanja cake
3.9 percent, nitrogen sesame cake 6.2 percent nitrogen and castor cakes 4.3 percent nitrogen.
So, this oil seed cake ah those after the extraction of oils these oil cakes can be
used ah in the vermicompost field for increasing, the nitrogen contents of the vermicompost
so, have a enriched vermicompost. So, in addition to this also you can used other sources like
poultry manure and the Azolla the aquatic ah ah aquatic ah um form, the green crops
or the waste forms the leguminous crops. So, those are the high N content those materials
can be added in vermicompost field to have a higher N content.
So, similarly the sources of phosphorus, we can have the ah rock phosphate that contains
around 20 to 40 percent P 2 O 5 bone meal ah that 20 to 25 percent P 2 O 5 are the ah
um the basic slag, that is 17 to 20 percent P 2 O 5 or the horn and hoof meal and waste
from fish and the animal processing industry. So, those who are also can be added being
the compost process for phosphorus enrichment. For enrichment a potash we can use the Sylvite
that contains a high concentration of ah K 2 O that is 63 percent of K 2 O wood ash,
just see eucalyptus that contains 5.9 percent K 2 O ah casuarinas woods 1.5 percent ah K
2 O, tobacco stems and also Babool wood those can be added during the composting process.
So, that we can have a ah higher potash content for the calcium and the magnesium enrichment
so, natural minerals like lime stone gypsum. And dolomite those materials can be added
ah for the calcium and magnesium enrichment and, this enrichment vermicompost can be done
either addition of rock minerals during the composting process, or we have the addition
of the this minerals ah with the readymade compost.
So, ah if you see the prepare some ah this enriched compost ah as you discussed the last
class the preparation of the general normal composed, we use the the agricultural waste
that is a aquatic weeds, or the agricultural waste means the rice straw, or the wheat straw
the top residues can be mixed together with the cow dung, cow dung is the ah the slurry
we can mixing as a 30 to 70 percent 30 percent minimum and ah as per the availability we
can go up to 70 percent, this year of cow dung. This cow dung and this and the wastes
slurry can be prepared and those slurry is loaded in the vermicompost weed.
As we discussed last class and for the prepare a some a vermicompost, after addition of this
waste and the cow dung mix in the vermicompost bed, then either we can add the rock phosphate
as a natural rock rock minerals, or we can add the microbes in the compost weed are both
can we added together the microbes and the rock minerals that that can be those, ah materials
can be added in the compost bed, then the normal compost ah processing goes on as we
discussed last class as remain same. Only thing this process after ah the mixing
of the waste materials, with the cow dung slurry and adding in the vermicompost bed
after that step. If you are going for the enriched compost production, then at this
stage we can add either the the rock minerals, or the microbial inoculants this natural sources,
or the biological sources which are used for the enriched vermicompost production, those
materials can be added at this stage immediately after loading up ah the caw dung mix in the
vermicompost bed. So, the microbes which are used for the ah
enrichment of the compost. So, these are the microbes I can say the left hand side for
these are the microbial inoculants. So, the one is trichoderma viridae, trichoderma viridae
just cellulolytic fungus. So, that is used for the early decomposition, or the quick
decompositions of the cellulose present in the organic waste.
And the second one is azotobacter chroococcum this is nitrogen fixing bacteria by adding
this azotobacter chroococcum, it can enhance in nitrogen mineralizations and the nitrogen
contents of the vermicompost. Third one the bacillus polymixa this is a phosphate solubilizing
bacteria so, by adding this microbes in the composed bed, it can I can make the better
solublizations and better availability of phosphorus from the compost.
And fourth one bacillus firmus this is a potash releasing bacteria by having this ah bacteria
at the microbes in the compost N the compost preparations so, this can have the better
mineralizations and the better availability of ah the potash during application to the
ah the field. ah And the other case we can add all the ah the
trichoderma, viridae, azotobacter, chroococcum, bacillus, ah polymixa and bacillus firmus,
these the cellulytic nitrogen fixing the phosphorus solubilizing and the potash releasing bacteria
all can be added together in the composting beds. So, this is of the microbial inoculation
and the amount is 50 ml growth per kg of organic wastes.
Similarly, we can add also the rock minerals in the compost bed the rock minerals, we we
can for the phosphorus enrichment, or the calcium magnesium enrichment, or the potassium
enrichment. For phosphorus enrichment the rock minerals used that the rock phosphate
the phosphate the total P content around 8.5 percent, for the calcium and magnesium enrichment
we use the ah dolomite dolomite contents total calcium 19.25 percent and the total magnesium
12.8 percent. For the potash enrichment we do add the the mica that contains 10.12 percent
of the potash. And these are the available ah phosphorus
from this rock phosphate around 35.2 ppm and available potash from the mica that is 140
ppm. And the nitrogen where is ND that is non not detectables.
So, these are the ah enrichment materials the natural minerals that is ah either rock
phosphates, ah for the phosphorous enrichment for the dolomite, for the calcium and magnesium,
or the mica for the potash enrichment those minerals can be added during the ah after
loading of the organic waste and the cow dung mix, in the vermicompost bed. And we have
tried different doses of this rock minerals starting from the 5 percent to 30 percent
and, we will discuss for the effect of this ah rock minerals adding some different doses
on the quality of the final vermicompost. Ah So, if you see the ah quality in in term
of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of the final vermicompost that we grady so,
after two months or the 60 days of the composting process, we see the effect of different organic
wastes and microbial inoculants on organic carbon and nitrogen contents of the vermicompost.
So, here we have taken three ah organic wastes. So, ah number one is where the ah water hyacinth
this is WH and the second one is the paddy straw that is a PS and the third one is the
saw dust that is SD. And we have used all the nitro where plants as we discussed ah
previously slides. So, these are the trichoderma viridae as given
TV and this azotobactor chrooococcum AZC phosphate solubilizing bacteria that is a bacillus polymixa
PSB, and pottash releasing bacteria there is bacillus firmus as KSB and mix means there
is a mix of all the four microbes TV, AZC, PSB, KSB there is a mix where all the for
microbes are mixed together. And CL is the control is the normal vermicompost convention
vermicompost without inoculation of any microbes. So, see the effect of this waste materials
and the microbial inoculants on the organic carbon content, we can we can see here, that
as we go on ah is a control means ah there is no addition of the microbes the organic
carbon content is around 406 milligram per kg that means 40.6 percent, as go on adding
the microbes the organic carbon content of the vermicompost ah that goes on decreasing.
So, when you go for the the the lowest organic carbon content is noted as a 313 milligram
per kg that is 31.3 percent when all the microbes they are mix together. So, that it indicates
that so, addition of microbes that facilitate better decomposition of the crop residue and
that so, so that so, the organic carbon content is reduced that mean the compost, when there
is a decompositions that need the compost is ready for application to a soil for better
availability of nutrients. If the organic carbon content does not decrease
it it indicates that so, there is very poor decomposition; that means, there is not well
decomposed manure. And once if I apply the old un un decomposed manure, or not well decomposed
manure to the field. So, it may not supply the nutrients at the required amount for the
crops and, it meet the requirement of the crop sense have the lower productions. To
have a high production then we should used well decomposed composed in the field.
So, in this case we can see by adding ah microbes, it can decreases the organic carbon content
that it indicates that the the waste materials is well decomposed by inoculation of the ah
micro microbes. And similarly if you see between among the
waste materials, the organic carbon content is the lowest in case of water hyacinth and
ah among the all three and the highest in case of the saw dust that means, the saw dust
contains the highs cellulose high carbon cont high carbon content and the decomposition,
because of low nitrogen content in the saw dust the decomposition process is very very
slow. Here the carbon content is around 52.7 percent
is saw dust whereas, the water hyacinth is around 24.3 percent. So, this indicates that
the saw dust is not well decomposed within two months, it may take more time for decompositions,
or we have to add more and more microbes for the better decompositions whereas, this the
water water hyacinth organic waste. So, that is well decomposed the carbon content is around
ah 24 percent. Similarly, if you see the nitrogen contents
as influenced by the the different ah waste materials and the microbial inoculations.
ah The organic carbon content decreases the nitrogen content decreases with microbial
inoculation; that means, ah with inoculation microbes that is a better mineralizations
and the N contents of the the vermicompost is increasing with addition of the ah microbes.
And if you see if you are adding the azotobacter chroococcum, this is a nitrogen fixing bacteria
by adding AZC the N content of the compost is increased by 58 percent; that means, from
10 milligram per gram to a to 15.8 milligram per gram or from 1 percent it has increase
to 1.6 percent in case of the azotobacter chrococcums the increase over the control
is around 58 percent. Similarly, if there is addition of all the
microbes the nitrogen content is 1.7 percent, or 17 milligram for the gram of the compost
and the in enhancement is around 70 percent as compare to without microbial inoculations.
And if you see the among the waste materials water hyacinth has highest N content that
is 1.9 percent, or 19.4s milligram per gram and lowest is in saw dust.
And as we have discussed in the previous classes for a good vermicompost, this CN ratio should
be within 10 to 20 raise to one if you think of the ah the organic waste water hyacinth.
Here the the carbon content is around 24 percent and the nitrogen contents is around 1.9 your
2 percent if the CN ratio of the organic waste waste vermicompost this is around 12 is to
1. So, this indicates that so, this is a ah waste
waste have the waste resources waste materials, influence has a impact on the quality of the
vermicompost. And the saw dust dust if you the CN ratio of the saw dust waste vermicompost
is 52 percent, or the 53 percent of carbon and 3 percent ah ah 0.3 percent of the ah
ah nitrogen. So, this CN ration may be more than 100. So, this is not like; that means,
it has no it is not true well decomposed it may take more and more time for decompositions
to make it ready for the field level applications. So, this is ah how the microbial inoculations
ah inoculants, they can ah they can increase the value, they can increase the nutrient
content of the vermicompost by adding in the compost in the composting bed.
Similarly, if you see the effect of the different those organic waste ah and the microbial inoculations
on the phosphorus and potassium content of vermicompost, we can see that ah when we are
mixing all the microbes together the phosphorous content is increasing by 43 percent over the
control where no microbial inoculation was done. Similarly for the potash by ah the potash
content is increased by 45 percent over no microbial, inoculation inoculations ah ah
in the control ah as now controls. So, there is around 45 so, almost ah more than 40 percent
increase in the phosphorus and potash content with microbial inoculation as compare to without
microbial inoculation. And this is happened because of the ah the
earthworm growth rate. So, by addition of the rock minerals it change the earthworm
growth rate also changes. So, you you can see here the effect of rock mineral doses
and microbial inoculations on earthworm growth rate. And, here three rock minerals one is
rock phosphate dolomite and mica so, the x axis shows the increasing doses from 0 ah
0 means there is no addition ah ah 0 percent. So, is a conventional comma composed 5 percent
of rock minerals 10 percent 15, 20, 25 and 30 percent rock minerals added based on the
dry wet of the organic waste. And this is the y axis shows earthworm growth
rate and, you can see for the rock phosphate the no addition and which edition of rock
phosphate up to ah 20 percent addition RP 20, there is somehow increase in the earthworm
growth rate that is milligram of increase in biomass bar 1 per day. If you go on increasing
the rock phosphate dose beyond 20 percent the earthworm growth rate is significantly
decreasing. And if you sit for dolomite also dolomite the earthworm growth rate increases,
with increasing addition up to 15 percent. And beyond 15 percent any further increase
in the addition there is a significant decrease in the earthworm growth rate.
And if you see the mica the mica waste so, mica waste of see that can be very beginning
or the from 0, if in you add you on adding mica waste, it does not increase the earthworm
growth rate, rather there is a decrease if you increase the mica beyond 10 percent up
to 10 percent it remains almost constants after 10 percent, if there is any further
increase in the mica doses 15 percent 15 percent. So, there is significant decrease in the earthworm
growth rate. So that means, shows the rock minerals either
the 10 or the 20 percent mica the DM is 20 20. So, there is a earthworm growth rate increases.
So, after that there is a significant decline so, earthworm the workforce. So, more earthworm
population that causes the that mineralization process and the decomposition of the waste
materials. So, earthworm growth rate should be well maintained for ah better quality of
the vermicompost. And if see the effect of this rock minerals
and total phosphorus content, ah ah the vernicompost during composting process, as you see the
ah ah rock phosphate as is used as a source of phosphorus. If you go on adding highest
dose a phosphates. So, there is a ah higher content of the ah phosphorus in the vermicompost
total phosphorus so, 3.5 percent with the RP 30. If you add 30 percent rock phosphate,
if you do not add conventional vermicompost total phosphorus is 0.9 percent. However,
it is the picture is not same for the ah Olsen phosphorus or the total phosphorus.
If you see the ah picture for the Olsen phosphorus RP 30 does not give the highest ah the available
phosphorous, ah the during the composting process, we have seen the different days of
composting as the the days passes. So, there is a increasing phosphorus availability in
the composting process. And the maximum availability is noted in RP 20 that 20 percent 20 percent
dose a rock phosphate not the 30 percent, if you go if you increase the the RP doses
a rock phosphate doses beyond 20 percent. So, there is a decline phosphorus availability
ah in the composting process. And this can be attributed to the earthworm growth rate
earth, there is a decrease in a earthworm growth rate higher dose of rock phosphates
that that causes the less ah ah um decomposition, or the of the ah the ah waste materials with
increasing ah dose of RP and RP dose RP ah 20 percent is comes to the best the optimum
dose for this ah ah um N his vermicompost any further additions that may cause the decreasing
phosphors availability during the composting process.
And similarly if you go for the total potash total potash content, if you see the ah mica
dose mica is response for potash increasing dose of mica that the increase total potash
content. So, as we go for the highest mica dose 30 percent ah mica 30, that gives the
the highest potash content of 3.46 percent at the end of the composting ah periods, and
1.67 percent where without any addition of the potash. But you see the picture for this
ah ah available potash, you ah potash or you can say the ah ammonium acetate potash contents.
So, ah here the mica 10 the mica dose 10 percent mica that gives the better result best result
as compare to other doses, because if you see the mica ah addition of mica more than
10 percent, that decreases the earthworm growth rate at the same time the release of ah potash
in the composting bed, or available potash that also decreases during the process of
composting which edition of mica higher than higher than 10 doses.
So, ah from this we can see see that so, mica 10 percent doses and the rock phosphate 20
percent and dolomite ah give the the 15 percent, that seems we give the better results in enhancing
the phosphorous potash and of course, the nitrogen content of the vermicompost.
And of course, you see the other contents like the microbial activity, this also we
can see with increasing dose of the rock minerals these are these the dose of rock minerals,
either the 0 no additions 5 10 15 20 25 and 30 percent of the organic waste ah the rock
minerals are added. So, this ah first ah bar diagram shows the rock phosphate the second
ones for for this dolomite and the ah third one is for the mica.
So, in this also this is the you we we are seen the effect of this ah rock mineral doses,
on urease activity and the acid phosphatase activity in the vermicompost, as you see the
final vermicompost this is analyze for the final vermicompost, you can see if we go on
increasing the the RP doses up to 10 percent of 15 10 15 that gives the maximum after that
there is a decline in urease activity and same also for this acid phosphatase activity.
Whereas the dolomite doses it can go up 15 ah 15 percent, that is shows up to the ah
um better results after that there is a decline in the ah urease and also acid phosphatase
activity whereas, mica I beneath the addition of the mica within ah 5 percent ah or the
10 percent that causes, the decrease in the ah microbial activity in the in the vermicompost.
And if you see the ah the keeping quality of this vermicompost the storage so, as you
go on ah storing vermicompost, what is the change in available nitrogen phosphorus and
potash content of vermicompost during storage, as you go storing ah you can see the available
nitrogen the ah first figure the middle one is the available phosphorus, that is the Olsen
phosphorus and the third one is the available potash content. So, we we analyze the available
N contents. So, this figure shows every 15 days the sample for taken from the ah ah from
the back from the storage back and the analyze for the available on nutrients during the
storage of the normal room temperature. So, ah you can see for this ah available nitrogen.
So, dolomite 15 ah gives the ah best results, where the nitrogen for all the ah vermicompost
that increases after 90 and 105 days, then decreases thereafter. And dolomite ah dose
of 15 percent and 5 percent, they give the best results of the the higher available nitrogen
with the higher doses of the dolomite, or other dose RP RP, or the mica at there is
a less nitrogen content. And if a Olsen phosphorous ah Olsen phosphorous
increasing the ah ah as RP 15 rock phosphate 15 that gives the best results, because Olsen
phosphorous that goes on increasing up to 90 days and. thereafter it remains almost
constants unlike nitrogen that decreases nitrogen after 90 to 105 days the available N decreases
in the ah compost during the storage whereas, the phosphorous and the potash both they remains
almost constant ah after 90 days, they increases up to 90 days thereafter value remains constant,
but nitrogen there is a last either through volatizations ah so, the loss of nitrogen
the available nitrogen loss during the storage. The in case of the ah Olsen P or the available
phosphorous RP 15 that gives the the maximum available phosphorous content during the ah
process of ah composting, ah forward by the RP ah 5 the 55 the 5 of rock dose that gives
I the maximum available and where there is no application control give the lowest one.
Similarly, in the mica doses you can see the mica 15 that gives the best results forward
by mica 5 mica 5 percent, and the ah mica 30 percent for increase in the potash content
during the storage it increases and up to 90 days and thereafter it remains almost constant.
So, this is how this storage live we can see here, that ah if you if you want for storing
of this a compost how long you can store without detorating the quality of the produce, can
see up to 90 ah 90 and 105 depth it can be safety store in a normal room temperature
and within that period it must be applied in field for their better use.
So, with this ah we can we can see the take home message you can see the waste resources
water hyacinth, and paddy straw having low CN ratio that is around 48 to ah ah 67 is
to is to 1, enhance the growth rate and population of earthworm thereby resulted ah ah better
of quality of vermicompost with respect to chemical and biochemical properties as compared
to the waste resource saw dust. The saw dust has higher CN ration ah 366 ah
is to one which is quite unsuitable for the vermicomposting it takes a long time for the
compost and, if you can add the the ah in the specific the cellulytic fungus, they can
ah have ah they can cause a quicker decomposition and, they can ah decrease ah they can have
a have a composting period can be reduced 2 to 3 months. Whatever the as compare to
saw dust the water has and then paddy straw seems to be a and a better materials, the
best materials for the composting process and those materials can be used for the vermicompost
ah are in it vermicompost production. Then as per the microbes yeah the combined
application of ah microbial inoculants that your trichoderma viride, azotobater chroococcum,
bacillus polymixa and bacillus firmusas as a the nitrogen fixing phosphate solubilizing
and the potash releasing bacteria and, this cellulytis ah fungus. So, those can be added
together. So, in the composting process by that they improve the chemical and biochemical
properties like, the increasing the microbial count VC as compared to the conventional VC
means without application of any microbes. The other one in the vermicmpostion process,
use a rock minerals that is the ah rock phosphate at 20 percent and dolomite at 15 percent and
mica at 10 percent which microbial inoculants ah the inorganic waste, enhance the earthworm
growth rate and improved the quality of vermicompost with respect to higher availability of micro
nutrients as we discussed. So, as using those ah rock minerals in mix and, along with microbial
inoculation, they can increase nitrogen ah availability by 26 percent in the final vermicompost
phosphorous availability by 19 percent and potash availability by 10 percent as compared
to the conventional vermicompost, without to application of any natural minerals or
a microbial inoculants. And the application rock minerals that a earthy,
or dolomite or the mica 15 percent along with the microbial inoculants in the vermicomposting
process, increase significantly the biochemical properties like your acid phosphatase activity,
and urease activity ah as compare to the conventional vermocompost. And with the respect yourself
life you see the self life of vermicompost in storage, it can be stored for 90 to 105
days in a safe. So, for storage for longer periods ah reduce the microbial activity and
the nutrient availability of the vermicompost. So, here we can say that ah um by adding the
ah different natural rock minerals, and the microbial inoculants to the vermicomposting
process; that means, ah ah during the composting process it can enhance, it can increase the
nutrient content of the vermicompost as we discuss nutrient content can be increase,
increased by 26 percent and the phosphorus by 19 percent potash by 10 percent in the
vermicompost; that means, a availability and also total total NPK also increased with the
addition of a rock minerals. So, by this as we see so, enrich there is
a scope. So, we can make the vermicompost enrichment using either natural minerals,
or the microbial inoculants and you can improve the quality of ah vermicompost, which can
be best suited for the suited for the crop production also we can make the crop specific
vermicompost. So, that it can be stored we can supply the markets it can be reach the
formers ah its comfortable for the farmers, they can use for specific crop specific type
of vermicompost enriched with specific nutrients. So, that we can minimize the need of the chemical
fertilizers and, we can attain the desirable productions without affecting, or without
harming the environment. Thank you very much.

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