Lecture 16 : Vermicompost Quality and Marketing


Welcome for the next lecture, Vermicompost
Quality and Marketing. So, we discussed last lecture about the production
technology. How we can produce vermicompost in the farm
levels or the small farmers or the marginal farmers. They can used at the farm resources and they
can convert the farm resources suitably to organic fertilizers by following the technology
as we discussed ah making the some structures they form bed structures and using the waste
materials and the mix and also if availables we can add the natural minerals and the ah
biological resources. So, that we can enhance the ah vermicompost
quality by making the vermicompost. So, ah so, this lectures we will be discussing
about the quality of the vermicompost, how we can go for the ah marketing of the vermicompost
. So, if you see the quality ah we we ah divide the quality in 3 categories; 1 is of physical
characteristics of vermicompost and second is your the chemical characteristics of the
vermicompost and third 1 the biological ah properties biological characteristics. You would see we just saw ah for a crop growth
and development for providing the ah the soil environment that is suitables for the better
uptake of nutrients better uptake of waters and to have a good rhizosphere . So, that
is a popular some microbes in the soils. So, we need to maintain the soil the 3 properties
of soil physical properties, chemical properties and biological properties. And the physical properties though are they
they helps in the nutrient uptake pattern of the crops. Though they don’t supply the nutrient to the
crops, the nutrient supply based on the chemical properties of the characteristic of the soils,
but the physical properties helps in the as a facility term for the nutrient release and
the nutrient uptake by the crops. And the biological properties like enzyme
activity or the microbial activity they help in the better nutrient mobilization or mineralization
and the uptake by the crop. So, if you see the vermicompost which are
the physical like soil the physical characteristics of vermicompost bulk density and the porosity
that indicates the the ah water holding capacity because few are the vermicompost are the low
bulk density as compare to the ah soil in because so, that if you add the vermicompost
soils. So, that decrease bulk density. So, lowering bulk density means that in the
higher porosity. The porosity is higher means, the micro pores
or the higher micro pores, water holding force that increases the water holding capacity
of the soil and the particle size distribution that is that is for the nutrient release and
the ah um uptake by the crops and the moisture content ah depends upon the the vermicompost
of the physical. So, moisture content how much moisture because
vermicompost a live thing. So, it contains many microbes. So, this has to have the ah moisture content
and the aerations for the proper growth ah or microbes in the vermicompost. So, this is the physical characteristics,
see chemical properties the pH of the vermicompost, cation exchange capacity or the ion exchange
capacity that buffering capacity of the the materials, the cation exchange capacity means
the nutrient release pattern. How we can ah the nutrient can combine exchange
sides and can be available for the crops that indicate cation exchange capacity of the material,
electrical conductivity that dissolve concentration. CN ratio; carbon nitrogen ratio of this compost
total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and more importantly the ah ammonical nitrogen
and nitrate nitrogen are the plant test nutrient in the 2 forms. 1 is ammonical nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen
most of the planned crops they prefer to have the nitrate nitrogen, but few crops they ah
take like rice they prefer to have the ammonium nitrogen ah we see the how much the availability
of ammonical nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the vermicompost. And also the secondary nutrients like calcium,
magnesium, sulphurs and the micronutrients contents in the vermicompost. Biological properties, the enzyme activity
and the microbial community as you discuss the urious activity, phospharate activity. So, these are the enzymes presents in the
vermicompost and the microbial counts beneficial micro many beneficial microbes are there in
vermicompost and their populations that makes the the entire the vermicompost the organic
fertilizer is a healthy and is a better used for for the application filled for the property. And you see the contents you can see the physical
chemical properties ah of the vermi vermicompost. Organic carbon contents should be around 20
to 25 percent, pore space or the porosity around 70 percent, moisture content of vermincompost
should be around 30 percent or this at least not less than 30 percent should be more than
30 percent . pH in the neutral range 6.5 to 7.5, cation
exchange capacity 50 to 100 milliequivalent for00gram of the vermin soil vermicompost,
ah then the electrical conductivity ah soil solution that is less than 1 decisiemens per
meter, total nitrogen contents should be ah should not be less than 1 percent should be
more than 1 percent and it should increase up to 3 or may be it can go up to 4 percent
the total n content. So, that we can ah minimize the use of chemical,
so, that we can meet the because nitrogen is the nutrient that are the phosphorous similarly
potash that leads to increasing the growth or increasing the yield of the crop. If it is a biomass increase that comes from
the weather nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. So, you need to have the vermicompost that
rich in NPK, so, that we should not sacrifices the yield. If you see think of quality, quality is most
regulated by the micro nutrients and the quantity of the productions or the biomass that regulated
by the macro nutrients. So, nitrogen should be around 1 or it can
be 3 percent or it can be more than higher digit should not be less than 1 percent should
be definitely more than 1 percent . It can increase to 4 and 5 percent that is
also good ah good compost. CN ratio 10 to 20 is to 1 and total phosphorus
the potash should be higher than 0.7 percent and calcium and magnesium should be calcium
should be higher than 1 percent, magnesium higher than 0.5 percent, ammonium nitrogen
so, should be more than 300 ppm and nitrate nitrogen around 120 ppm. So, these are the quality in the normal vermicompost
as you see. So, these are the qualities of the vermicompost
that we have produced from our farm. So, that we see these are the ah qualities
of the vermicompost. So, if we compare the vermicompost or the
conventional vermicompost and the enriched vermicompost this data is a developed from
our own experiment from ah from the research class work ah. So, this is the chemical properties and the
the conventional vermicompost microbial enriched vermicompost and the rock mineral enriched
vermicompost . So, you see the total nitrogen, phosphorus, total potash total calcium, total
magnesium content because this is the organic materials. So, we consider as a total contents. So, later on because as microbes are present
once applied to the soils . So, because it is a vermicompost has a high residual effect
unlike the chemical fertilizers. So, here the nutrients are available for the
start periods and they are the because the the very fast mineralizations in case of chemical
fertilizer, but vermicompost is slow mineralization it takes long time. So, total nitrogen this can be available for
a for longer period and it has the if you if you go for the cropping systems when your
nutrient management cropping systems. So, if you are using the organic fertilizer
like vermicompost, we should see the residual effect of the vermicompost. So, that the crops in sequence the nutrient
management should be taken care and the ah to have a better productions with the minimum
ah cost of inputs . For the conventional vermicompost, you see
the total nitrogen is 1.3 to ah 1.5 percent. If you go for the enrichment with the microbes
the a nitrogen content increase 1.8 to 2.4 percent , but only rock enriched it does not
have any influence on the nitrogen content that remains almost same 1.4 to 1.5 percent,
but microbial enrichment using your or the different microbes microbes. So, they increase the they have a they they
increase the rate of mineralizations and the ah N content of the vermicompost form 1.2
to or 2.4 percent. Similarly, if you go for the phosphorus, total
phosphorus 0.8 to 1 percent for this conventional vermicompost, ah with microbial enrichment
this is a 0.9 to 1.3, ah where as if you go for the ah rock enrich rock mineral enrich,
so, that is a significant improvement phosphorus content 2.9 to 3.5 percent. So, if you see the potash for the conventional
vermicompost, this is 1.0 to 1.1 percent ah with the microbial enrichment. So, 1.1 to 1.6 small improvement, where as
if you go for the rock mineral enrich the potash content is increased up to 2.8 to 3.5
percent, ah same for the ah calcium and magnesium. The total calcium in case of the conventional
vermicompost 0.5 to 0.8 percent and with microbial enrichment, it is 1.5 to 2 percent and with
the rock enriched it is significant improvement as 7 to 8 percent .
For the magnesium, it is a conventional vermicompost 0.1 to 0.2 percent, with ah microbial enrichment
0.6 to 0.8 percent and with the rock enriched it is around 1.5 to 2.3 percent. So, the rock minerals and the microbial regulations,
so, they can be mixed together for a preparation of a enriched vermicompost. If you see the available nutrients ah at the
end of the composting period, so, when you go for the matured compost harvesting, see
the available nutrients. In case available nitrogen for the conventional
vermicompost, it’s around 103 and some cases we have seen that is also increasing the ah
the different replication different ah combinations. So, ah increasing 1326 ppm and the microbial
enrichment the there is a good improvement 1600 to 1700 ppm and for though this rock
enriched so this remains around 705 to 1500 ppm or the nitrogen. Whereas, if you see the ah Oslen phosphorus
or you can say available phosphorus for the conventional vermin compost is around 900
to 1087 ppm and for the microbial enriched it is 900 to 1125 ppm, whereas, you go for
the rock enriched rock use of rock phosphate the available phosphorus with the proper dose
if you go for the higher dose, so, that decreases, but it uses rock phosphate around 20 percent
the available phosphorus around 1165 to 1444 ppm. Similarly, ammonium acetate using the mica
by mica you can increase the available ammonium acetate for the conventional vermicompost
is around 253 to 3330 ppm. Ah With the microbial enrichment, it is higher
4320 to 5230 ppm, ah whereas, with the rock enriched 4320 to it can increase up to 9274
ppm, the micro the use of mica. And this is the chemical properties, if you
see the biological properties of the ah enriched vermicompost compared with the conventional
vermicompost that is urease activity and acid phosphatase activity we have seen. For the conventional vermicompost, let us
say ah micro gram ammonium for gram for hour. So, this is a ammonium release from this conventional
vermicompost as you say 80 to 90, whereas the microbial enriched is the higher activity
of the microbes that is 120 to 130 and rock enriched 116 to 130. Similarly, the acid phosphatate activity for
this conventional vermicompost is around 158 to 172, this increase to 200 to 255 for the
microbial enriched VC and for the rock enriched it is 216 to 22.2. So that means, the with the addition of the
microbes that increases the activity of microbes which ultimately help in the nutrient release
pattern ah the availability of nutrient in the vermicompost itself and also this can
be helpful when apply the soil file they can help a better soil mineralizations. And the better availability or the quicker
availability to nutrient to crops for meeting the need of the crop .
So, ah there are some as you see the definitely the conventional vermicompost as a higher
ah the nutritional quality contents as compare to the ah sorry the enriched vermicompost
has a higher nutritional content as compare to the conventional vermicompost .
So, there is a marketing tips. So, how can go for the marketing? Suppose, we are discussing the ah we will
be discussing a cost analysis for a small and marginal farmer, we can going for the
production vermicompost on for his own consumption actually, ah we can see what is the ah return
we can get if if goes and selling the vermicompost. But when you go for marketing, so, to market
vermicompost for the top top value the product must be uniform actually and the consistence
and the reproducible; that means, it is very consistence and reproducible and see uniform
quality. So, that the consumers can he can build a
trust among the consumers among the farmers, ah if you for the regular supply of a produce
is the same of principle of the any market. If you are meeting the demand of the crops
and you have a consistent supply and if the quality is maintained and the the supply is
consistence and also the quality you know consistent and reproducible then the there
will be demand . So, the second don’t think compost as the only end product. Similarly for the ah vermicompost organic
farming. So, ah we we we don’t think that ok, we can
provide the compost that is the that is the job is done, no. So, usually we have to ah target the consumers
or you can say the understand the growers, what are the growers demand, what are the
growers needs and their expectations. The growers actually the farmers as as being
a if you if you think a farmer, suppose you become a farmer what I need? Suppose I am growing rice crop, I need a compost
which is suitable for rice crop. So, that I can have a better productions at
the same time I can may the quality is also ah better with the minimizing the cost of
products also . Similarly, if you are growing a farmers, I
am growing potato or I am growing cabbage or I am growing cauliflowers. So, I need a compost that that is fitting
to requirement of the crop because compost for the potato and the compost quality for
the ah tomato or the cabbage may not be same. Potato is a crop which require more of phosphorus
and more potash. So, we need to supply compost that is rich
in phosphorus and potash. So, that it can you can maintain the the amount
of production the quantity of productions at the same time by improving the quality. And and so that the ah the if you meet the
customers ah expectations and the growers expectations. What they need? Then you can make production if you go for
the marketing scales we can produce the compost in such a way. So, you can meet the target growers the target
growers demands can be fulfilled then there is a continuous supply chain . So, the producers,
so, if you see there is a model of this loaded from the ah Nepal, there is a marketing channel
of and the market volume of vermicompost in Nepal as you said the producer and consumers
. So, mostly they link 85 percent of their production
that goes to consumer linking and only rest 15 percent either to traders and the co operative. So, there is a direct contact. So, in vermicompost thing you have the direct
contact with the producer and the consumer; that means, the the farmer. So, farmer is the ah the end users or the
beneficiaries. So, if you have the targeted farmers, the
group of farmers and you can imagine, you can visualize, conceptualize what is what
is the need of the farmers? So, which crop they are growing and for that
crop they are growing rice grows rice farmers or they vegetable growers the vegetable growers
what type of vegetable they are growing and for those farmers what type of compost is
needed. So, can you make enrichment? Can you enrich the vermicompost in the productions? Can you enhance the quality so that he can
directly meet the requirement of the farmer? So, if you thinking on so, marketing will
be much easier and this is supply chain will be also much smooth. So, if this is the ah from the ah as as once
your compost is ready, then you go for the business scale then order trade taking. So, you can take orders by any media either
phone calls or the email messages or that is the order taking process you can as as
you can you can take the orders from different agencies depending upon the requirements. So, that depends upon the how cantilever making
which the consumers which grows you are targeting based on that you can you can have the order
from ah ah for different type compost or the compost or the compost person. Then accordingly depending upon the order
the type of compost you have different quality, then go for the packing packing is a breathable
packings they. So, that is a vermicompost live materials. So, their microbes we can it is not use a
air tight containers should not be used. If the containers, the bags we are using that
is a perforated or the aerations they show a proper aerations. So, that compost is the live material is a
healthy material live material life is there. So, you should you should provide the packing
material you should have the proper area sums. Then you can have a is a primary packaging
you can say, as you are making packing and this is one of the box you can see here box
there is a secondary package. So, in a in a box we are putting the a number
of packets and also you can have the tertiary packages, similar boxes can be put in a in
a ah in a containers and finally, this can be transported to the ah growers. And when you when you go for the marketing,
ah sending to the growers or the or the customers then you have proper labeling of the vermicompost
. So, that is very very important ah as per the marketing. So the product should be named as the name
of the product should be given their name of the product what you are giving the vermicompost
or the product can be given and the logo of the company as the producers they have the
certified company, the logo should be provided. The composition of product is very very important,
the main compositions with the macronutrients and micronutrients as a continues specific
enzymes or the hormones or the microbial biomass community. So, those compositions should be given on
the as the labels and craft specific suitability is it is very very essential to specify the
suitability of the compost for specific group of crops. It may be specific for cereals or it may be
pulses or oilseeds or vegetables for which type of crop is most suitable. So, if if if ah so, this could be specified
on the cover of the same compost leveling. Then uses details, the quantity of use for
which crop and what is the quantity, the volume of the quantity of the used for the kg, for
hectare or the ton per hectare that can be specified. Specific action, so, after application what
happens? What are the enhance, what are the changes
in the soil fertility changes the the growers can expect. So, that is specific action that can given
and finally, the manufacturing and expiring dates. So, these are the leveling process. So, when you go for the composting levels,
should be provided ah for this given in the compost .
Then we will go for the same ah sample cost analysis of vermicompost and we will discuss
for a small farmer. Usually, the ah small farmers the land size
is 2 hectares are to small to medium farmers 2 to 5 or maximum 5 hectares land size. For a small farmer, you can go for the organic
farming right. So, it can take 10 beds, 10 beds and ah the
vermicompost the matured period is 60 days. So, in a year, so that means, 2 months 1 vermicompost
set can be matured. So, in a year can have the 6 cycles, means
2 months 1 cycle, a vermicompost can be ready and in a year 12 months, so, we will have
the 6 cycles in a year. So, ah will give the cost analysis for a 10
beds. So, if you see the 10 beds per fixed cost,
construction of bed. If you go for the earthing up or the bricks
and cements, so the cement structure of the bed, bed size as you discussed earlier same
bed size each bed size is ah 10 to 12 feet length 3 to 4 feet ah width and 1.5 to 2 feet
depth. So, for this bed size single bed size, you
can go for the 10 beds, the construction procedure around 10000 and cost of construction of shed
means also shed materials we are putting here the as materials, providing the cover to the
beds. The cost of construction shed material is
around 40000, cost of machinery and the implements um ah as you are using for the mixing of the
vermicompost or the shedding for the cutting of vermicompost to the small small pieces
and the seedling operations. So, that is we have taken only 20000 cost
of machinery. And cost of irrigation facilities, when you
go for the vermicompost you have provide the irrigations sprinkler irrigations for the
regular ah irrigating or maintaining the moisture content in the compost bed that you have kept
as 30000. So, total cost is 100000; that means, 1 lakh
for 10 bed. So, that remains a fixed cost; that is only
construction cost of the vermicompost ah. So, 10 beds is around 100000; that is 1 lakh
. And if you see the variable cost, so, these
are the variable cost for the 10 beds. First we take the organic waste, we have taken
the ah 9 tons, 9 tons means 15 tone based on the drive basis, we have taken almost 15
ton 150 kg for for bed ah 1.5 quintal for 10 beds; ah that is the 150 kg per bed ah
; that means, 1.5 quintal. For 10 beds that is a 15 quintals ok and for
the 6 cycles and that is goes around 9000 kg for the 1 years if you are using the organic
waste that comes 9000 kg ah in a cycle of 6 cycles and for 10 beds and the cost or this
materials around 2250 rupees and the cow dung we are using around 4500 kg cow dung for this
6 cycles and the cost of cow dung is also 2250 rupees. Earth worm that is a 20 kg per cycle 2 kg
per bed and ah that is ah for 10 beds 20 kg for initial ah ah release of earthworm we
need the bed the kg cost is around 650 rupees. So, for the 20 kg cost earthworm is 13000
rupees. And the fungus culture if you see fungus culture
that is 30 liters, we are using the 300 rupees and labour we have kept 180 labours in a year
of 365 days. So, around the 30 labours per each cycle 10
beds, need 30 labour per each cycle that includes you are the ah loading or the cutting of the
used materials, loading in the bed and maintenance of the moisture temperature in the bed harvesting,
after harvesting separation of earth worm drying and packaging. So, this 180 labours for the 10 beds, around
36000 is the labour cost, we have kept 200 rupees ah per labour as because the usually
the farm ah the labours farm family if a person they are employed in doing the job. Electricity, we have kept 3000 rupees for
annum and packaging charge, only for this is a packaging material. So, you have kept around 250 rupees and other
expenses kept 1500 rupees. So, total variable cost for the 10 beds it
s it comes around 58540 rupees for the first year. And if we go for the second year, so, all
the cost remains same except the earth worm because the earth worm that is generated from
the first cycle these are form can be used for the ah for the second cycle also. So, here the only 1 cycle earth worm cost
is used, the same earthworm is multiplied and also you can sale earthworm regularly. So, there is no cost of earth warm involved. So, this form second year onwards this variable
cost is 45540. And if you see the return, ah vermicompost
almost reproduced 9 tons in a year from 10 beds in 6 cycles and the cost of vermicompost
the the selling price if you are calculate the 10 rupees a kilo for 1 ton around around
10000 rupees is for this conventional vermicompost. If you think of the enriched vermicompost,
which here we need add either the rock phosphate or rock minerals or the microbial inoculants,
if you add this ah the the cost or the selling price of the enriched vermicompost is rupees
15 per kilo and per ton is around rupees 15000 is taken as ah the cost of the ah enriched
vermicompost. So, rupees 10000 for the conventional vermicompost
and rupees 15000 for the enriched vermincompost for ton of produce. So, here you have taken the conventional vermicompost;
so, as a 9 ton, so, 10000 per ton 9 ton around 19000, the income from the vermicompost selling. Also you have the vermiwash that can be produce
around 300 liters and the returns from the vermiwash can be 3600 rupees for 300 liters
. And earthworm also you can sell, 50 kg earthworm
we can it can be available from this 1 years and with 20 kg is yield that is every time
we used 20 kg and additional 50 kg earth worm is there. So, that can that is can be also return earthworm
first is around 650 rupees a kilo. So, that comes around 35000. So, total return ah comes around 128600 for
a conventional vermicompost of 10 beds in 1 year ah. If you see the cost and return analysis of
conventional vermicompost, so, for the year 1, we have the fixed cost that is your constructions
materials that is around 1 lakh and this is the variable cost of the first year 58540. So, because of you have the ah earthworm cost
initially involved there. So, total cost comes around 158540 in the
first year and total return is 128600. So, first year we have a negative return that
is a low that is a 29940 because the construction cost, the fixed cost is involved there. ah We go to year 2. So, there is no fixed cost. So, only variable cost is there. So, that is your the 45540 that remains constant
for from year 2 onwards and your total cost is the same as your variable cost and total
return is same 128600 and here you have the benefit. The second year around 83000, so and also
from second year third year onwards onwards, so, you can a farmer can get around 84000
of the benefit from second year onwards . And if you go for the ah enriched vermicompost,
where the fixed cost remain 1 lakh that is constant and variable cost here we are we
are in addition to the if you see the conventional vermicompost there is variable cost is higher
is 62140, this is because of the natural of minerals . So, around 3600, it is added here
for the cost of the natural rock minerals either is a rock phosphate or the dolomite
or the mica that is added for the 10 beds and in unit cycle also. So, it is comes around 3600. So, if you add this one, the total cost is
around 162140 and the total return here as we discussed earlier, if you if you got this
ah total return is 90000 for this a conventional vermicompost and if you go for the enriched
vermicompost the will be 15000 for ton is the 9 ton this comes around 135000 return
and the total return increases here using this ah ah enriched vermicompost. So, total return comes around 173600, for
the enriched vermicompost. But if you see the conventional vermicompost
the total return is ah 128600. So, this have the higher return ah 173600
and net return is ah in the first year only 11460 in case of the conventional we had a
loss first year. First year, we are pay back we are not getting
any return rather there is a loss in case of the conventional vermicompost, whereas,
enriched vermicompost we get around 12000 and net benefit in first year. If we go to year 2, ah ah so, here ah we have
to ah think that here are some cost is not there the cost is around 49140 and this total
cost is 49140 and return remains constant for year after years and here the net return
is 124460, same for the year 3 and same for year on onwards. So that means, if you go for the ah ah enriched
vermicompost, so, your net return is around 125000 in span of 12 months ah for the size
of the 10 beds. If the farmers specially for the ah small
farmers or the medium farmers having 2 hectare of land area if he does not want to use if
somebody goes for the marketing, these are the value of marketing, but farmers usually
the small and medium farmers. They used to use the compost for their own
conjunction, for the own field. So the production is around 9 tons per hectare. So, 9 tons per hectare means if you see ah
it can it can meet the requirement of 2 hectare of farmlands, ah you can you 9 tons per hectare
and here the farmers need not sell as is using vermicompost on his own field and only the
cost involved is here or variable cost as you see here and here you can sell only the
earthworm. If you see the earthworm price, ah the earthworm
cost is around 35000. So, each year, he can he can get around 35000
rupees per year ah through selling a earthworm and the vermicompost he can use for his own
field can be applied and this a this is the return he can get and by if you if you we
will discuss the other classes when go for applying the vermicompost, the the rate of
applications and the year of applications with the year we can minimize the use of the
because initially you may require the high doss of vermicompost to meet the requirement
of the crop. As we proceeds about the years, then the vermicompost
doss can be reduced because the because this has a residual effect the buildup effect as
you go on adding the years. So, there is a residuals residual and the
nutrient ability also increases over the years because soil has the organic metro pool that
stabilize the organic metro pool that gets builds build up about the year and once the
soil stabilize organic metro pool that is built that is settled then the requirement
of the vermicompost can be minimized and however, the soil can meet the nutrient requirement
of the crop can be supplied from the soil once the stabilize organic metro that is build
up. So, it takes some time in case of composting
and in this case the farmers can have the 10 bed and he can produced he is produce from
this ah 10 beds can be utilized for the own crops can meet the requirement of the crops
and the as his not buy the vermicompost from outside only his farm resource can utilized,
the cost of production can be brought down. This also discuss in the later class in the
input management in the crops. So, with this I can say that so, there is
a scope. So, there is a opportunity. So, we can we can completely depend upon the
organic fertilizers. We can eliminate the use of the chemical pesticides
or the chemical fertilizers, while meeting the required productions in a sustainable
environment. Thank you all.

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