Lecture 25 : Organic Vegetable Crop Management Cereals Contd.


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So, welcome to lecture 25 ah. So, the continuation of this ah organic field
crop management of the cereal crops. As we are discussing the rice crop, we discussed
a previous lecture. So, specially the planting technique for the
rice. So, which planting method is to be followed
for organics especially, go for the young seedling as a wider spacing and ah a 1 seedling
or 2 seedling per hill hill. So, that can give a better ah growth and also
ah the better yield. So, we at the same time saving huge amount
of the seed requirement and the water requirement. So now, we will discuss about this nutrient
management how to calculate. We go for the ah organic sources. So, as we discussed for potato crops, similarly,
for rice crop based on the nutrient composition of different sources, you can calculate the
requirement of the different organic sources or fertilizer. Ah. Like as as we have seen the potato, potato
crop, we discussed it is a conventional vermicompost or the microbial enriched vermicompost rock
enriched vermicompost FYM. Thus, the simple FYM, they contains only nitrogen
0.5 percent total phosphorous 0.2 percent and potash 0.5 percent. To go for the conventional vermicompost ah
as due to release of earthworms ah that contains around 1.3 to 1.5 percent nitrogen and 0.81
percent phosphorous 1 to 1.1 percent K 2 O. So, by changing your composting process from
the conventional farmyard manure to conventional ah vermicompost by using earthworm as we have
discussed earlier. So, this increases the quality of the compost
by increasing nitrogen phosphorus and potash content because the earthworm and the process
of mineralizations that helps in mineralizations that helps ah having the ah higher nutrient
content. . So, if you go on improving the ah conventional
vermicompost with a microbial enrichment by using different microbes, at the the nitrogen
fixing phosphorous solubilizing or the potash solubilizing microbes as we have discussed
also. So, that also helps increasing the ah nitrogen
and the phosphorus and potash content. So, in addition that, if you go for the enrichment
with specific elements either for the nitrogen or for the phosphorous or the potash by having
the rock enriched vermicompost. you you can have improvement in the content. And using those different sources, we can
calculate the ah dose of rice ah like potato. We calculated the dose of the ah sources of
ah manures or the fertilizers, fertilizer based on the potash contents. In case of potato, here, as the requirement
of chemical fertilizers 100 kg nitrogen 50 kg P 2 O 5 60 kg K 2 O per hectare for the
rice crop the cereal crops . So, nitrogen requirement is high higher as compared to
phosphorous and potash. So, you calculate the ah doses of this organic
sources based on the N requirement that is 100 kg per hectare. So, likewise, as you did for the potato crop. So, for the farmyard manure containing only
point 5 percent nitrogen. So, use 20 tonnes of farmyard manure to meet
the the nutrient demand of the crops. But, if we use conventional vermicompost or
the rock enriched vermicompost, they have the similar requirement either 7 tonnes a
7 tonnes. This is because of the conventional vermicompost
or the rock enriched vermicompost. There is no change in N content the nitrogen
content remains same. So, as we are trying to meet the N demand
of the crop. So, that the yield level should be maintained
we do not want to sacrifice the yield in case of organic farming. So, that it will meet the nutrient the nitrogen
demand. So, the requirement of conventional vermicompost
or enriched vermicompost remain same, but you go for the microbial enriched where there
is a higher nitrogen content as compared to conventional or the rock enriched vermicompost
with microbial enrichment the the dose of the vermi vermicompost is reduced to 4 tonnes
per hectare. So, ah. So, the application of this this can be applied
; that means, at the time of the final land preparation, just before planting and this
say can be incorporated ah either you can use conventional vermicompost or microbial
enriched or the rock enriched vermicompost. This compost should be well incorporated in
the soils. Soil at the time of the final land preparations
ah; that means, when you go for the leveling and then you can go for the planting operation. ah. So, come to ah the pest and disease management
ah in case of the rice. So, as in general as a general applications
ah as we have discussed for the organic farming, you should follow resistant variety variety
which is free from most of the pest and diseases. So, select the resistant as well as well well
adopted varieties for specific areas. Then, select the clean and disease free seeds
because many diseases are the seed born diseases. So, while selecting the seed should be free
from ah diseases. And proper agronomical practices like it is
the optimum planting time is very, very important in case of the organic farming. Because ah, if you ah make a delay planting
or early planting, first of all the yield gets reduced because, if ah in case of rice
crop. Suppose, the planting time in followed for
the ones around June July 15 or 25 ah 30 the best July 15 to July 30 we can say best times
specially for Western India, you go for the planting. If you go for the ah early planting, what
will happen ah? Because there is a optimum temperature for
the flowering period also. So, temperature may be around 25 degree Celsius
the grain filling. So, that that increase the better grain filling. So, early planting the the crop may not may
not get that favourable temperature for grain filling the yield will be reduced and late
planting the. So, that ah the temperature become very low,
then also the grain filling becomes poor that causes yield reduction . And moreover, the
changing planting time and the temperature and the humidity that becomes congenial or
favourable for many insect pest and disease the crop also suffer from the pest and disease
attack by shifting the planting time. If you go for the early or the late planting. So, the crop is also ah infested by several
pest and diseases that causes also yield reduction. So, that is a planting time is very, very
important for the farming practice. That should be followed very strictly to have
a better yield and to have a ah pest and disease free crops ah by having the optimum planting
time. Then of course, the good water management
ah that that can some insect and disease attack the field should be well drained, drained
out. The water should be drained out from the field
to protect the crop from the spread of ah the pests and diseases. Then, you go for the field preparations. At the field preparations, what precaution
you can take for the pest and disease management? Apply a farmyard manure pre colonized with
Trichoderma ah Harzianum or pseudomonas Fluorescens. So, this ah this ah microbes can be ah pre
colonized with the farmyard manure that can be released in the field. So, that they can protect ah the the crop
from many insect pest and diseases. Ah. For the pre colonization of farmyard manure
ah either the Trichoderma Harzianum or the pseudomonas Fluorescens is to be added at
monthly interval in the FYM pits around at the rate of 100 gram per pit and this pits
should be covered with the either rice straw or the sugarcane leaves and should be watered
regularly. So, the ah. So, that ah to maintain a proper moisture. For the growth of the microbes, beneficial
microbes, as a Trichoderma Harzianum or the Pseudomonas Fluorescens. . In green manuring, when you go for the incorporational
green manures in the field, before ah at the time of land preparations, before the transplanting
of the rice crops at that times. So, Trichoderma Harzianum or the pseudomonas
Fluorescens can be also applied in the field at the rate of 5 gram per litre. So, that can be incorporated in the field
also that can serve a that can protect the crop from many insect pest and diseases .
Nursery sowing time also, when you go for the nursery seeding, because when you go for
rice crop, we can go of the different type of nursery. So, ah the nursery field, the seed can be
treated with salted water followed by Trichoderma Harzianum and the Pseudomonas Fluorescens
ah at 5 gram each per kg of seeds. When we because, when we go for the nursery
seeding, because we soak the seeds ah in water for around 12 hours 12 20 hours. They can be soaked and then it is a ah packed
in a gunny bag bags for maintaining a optimum temperature for germinations of the seeds. So, during soaking or the sowing of the seeds,
use the salted water and as a this microbial as a Trichoderma Harzianum and Pseudomonas
Fluorescens that can. So, that the seed born disease can be avoided
use pheromone trap. Also, in the nursery to control the stem borers
and that can be 1 pheromone trap can be used ah per 100-meter square of nursery area and
also you can release that Trichogramma Japonicum or Trichogramma Chilonis ah around the 1500
15000 parasitoids per hectares to control ah any insect pest and disease in the nursery
bed. So, while going for transplanting. So, ah. So, before transplanting nursery bed can be
treated with the there is a drenching of Pseudomonas Fluorescens at one gram per meter square of
nursery. So, that can be treated 1 day before transplanting
for the seedling treatment. So, that seedling the main field should not
be infested with the pest and disease. So, these are the some of the measures that
can be taken cares without waiting for the appearance of the disease or the attack of
insect pest and disease. So, seedling can be dipped or the root of
the seedling can be dipped in the suspension of Pseudomonas Fluorescens that is around
5 gram per litre the. So, this is either the applying the ah the
Pseudomonas Fluorescens in the nursery beds before operating of the nursery or after operating
the seedlings can be dipped in the suspension of Pseudomonas Fluorescens. So, that we can control many of the pest and
diseases in the main field . Ah. After transplanting, so, till maturity, when
the crop in the main field we can use the pheromone trap and the number of traps around
20 traps per 1 hectare of main field and 1 traps . The area of around 20 meter into 25
meter per area and 5 milligram pheromones per trap and this ah pheromones that can be
also ah that can be used week before ah week of transplanting for stem borer and replace
this pheromones and 30 days. So, this pheromone trap as we discussed earlier,
also this can be used in the main field for controlling especially, the stem borers, avoid
water stagnation and at the time of the ah attack of insects and pest diseases. The field should be drained out. So, the if the standing water the field can
be drained out. So, the spread of the disease or the insect
pest can be can be controlled. So, in that case, as we are discussing the
system, that is a very good because it is less infested by pest and disease. Because, you do not put the standing water
only saturation is maintained ah field capacity and saturations. No standing water in that case. There is a less disease and pest in case of
as compared to the conventional transplanting where ah more than 5 percent standing water
is maintained. Of course we can spray 10 percent cow urine
mixed with Neem leaves or the spray of cow urine should be ah started 25 days after transplanting
and subsequently 3 to 4 sprays at 15 days interval and we can spray a vermiwash 5 percent
vermiwash or vermicompost, tea compost tea treated with Trichoderma Harzianum and Pseudomonas
Fluorescens. So, ah. So, compost tea that is also a very good ah
aspect to have a control on pest and disease. What it will do? Also, this supplies many ah nutrients. So, ah the compost around 1 part of compost
mixed with a 10 litre ah 1 kg of compost 10 10 litre of water and they are stirred by
the mixed like a mixy with a high speed stirring. And after stirring for ah stirring the when
the compost is fully mixed with the water, then you make filtration and this the liquid
extracted the filtered liquid; that is know as compost tea and the tea can be sprayed
on the on the canopy and you can make some dilution also with water may be ah 1 is to
5 time 1 is to 5 times ah that can be sprayed over the crop canopy. And with ah ah with that, we can control many
pest and diseases. And of course, it supplies ah most of the
nutrients or the spray for the growth and development of the crop .
. And, spray mixed formulation of compatible ah strains of Pseudomonas Fluorescens and
Trichoderma Harzianum 5 gram each per liter of water at panicle initiations for sheath
blight sheath rot neck blast one spray to be given at weekly intervals. So, ah by using the Pseudomonas Fluorescens
or the Trichoderma Harzianums ah. The the strains are mixed together and they
are 5 grams per liter of water and they can be sprayed regularly to control. So, blight disease rot disease and the blast
disease of the rice . And coming to wheat crop, because wheat seed
is a cool season crop and the average temperature, during the sowings around 10 degree Celsius
to 15 degree Celsius and ripening or the grain filling periods. As you said, that is a 21 degree Celsius to
26 degree Celsius. Wheat grows better in those areas where rainfall
occurs in usually winter seasons and irrigations serve serves the best if the rainfall is below
50 centimeters and you can provide the irrigation water .
And soil. Wheat grows ah best in well drained ah fertile
loam of either alluvial soils type or the black soil type the optimum pH range is 6
to 7 . So, ah unlike the rice ah rice you go for the , but, wheat does not require we
can go for the normal till operations primary tillage followed by secondary tillage to have
a loose soil for sowing of seeds ah. So, before sowing, usually when you go for
the . Pre sowing irrigations, if the soil is hard,
there is less moistures. You go for the pre sowing irrigation ah yeah
irrigation. So, that the the soil can be moisture content
for ah proper tillage because, if you till the soil at the high the high moisture content,
there will be formations that is not good for the wheat sowing and with the low moisture
content for the tillage operations. So, there is a optimum moisture content that
should till. So, that you can have a loose soils not very
ah because high if you go for the high moisture content. There is a higher formation which is not good
for the wheat uptake the germination or the establishment of the wheat seedling. So, proper soil moisture content the tillage
operations should be performed then seeds sown ah in row spacing 20 centimeter. So, after a land preparations , usually the
depending upon the soil moisture. If it is very dry, you can go for the pre
sowing irrigations and then go for the sowing of the wheats. Ah Or after sowing, we can go for irrigations. Because post sowing irrigations causes the
ah less emergence of the wheat seedling as compared to pre sowing irrigations. Pre sowing irrigation is a preferred than
the post sowing ah. Because, pre sowing post sowing irrigations,
there will be drifting of the seeds from 1 place to other place and there maybe accumulation
of water in the field. If the field is not well leveled, that causes
the loss of seedlings or the death of the the seedlings that the seedlings may not emerge
because of the water accumulation. So, that is why, we go for the pre sowing
irrigation, then go for the sowing germinations and the establishment. And so, ah in the sowing time you can have
the source of mustard crops on the sides of the field. So, that it can serve as a trap crop for some
insect pest that attract. They attracted towards the mustards. So, main main crop can be free from ah many
insect pest and diseases . Nutrient management. So, ah like rice, wheat also that is requires
nitrogen in the greater amount as compared to ah phosphorus and potash. The dose of ah chemical for higher as 120
kg nitrogen 50 kg P 2 O 5 60 kg K 2 O per hectare so. In fact, if you say the especially for the
rice as you see as we as we discussed. Also, rice is grown under transplanted conditions
and they because you are going on conditions in that case as you are maintaining water. In that case many, of the micronutrients at
the saturated conditions or the ah standing water as you see many of the micronutrients
are available in the rice field. So, the efficiency of the applied external
source nitrogen is very low in case of rice, but this does not happen in the aerobic crops
like a wheat crops where we require the we need fertilizer. So, without fertilizer without nutrient applications
yield will be very, very low. So, the nutrient dose is 100 20 kg nitrogen
50 kg P 2 O 5 60 kg K 2 O per hectare and based on the similar calculation. As we discussed for the potato crop, rice
crops also to based on the N contents point. So, FYM contains 0.5 percent nitrogen and
to meet 120 kg of nitrogen, we require 24 tonnes of FYM per hectare. But if you use the conventional vermicompost
or the rock enriched vermicompost, the requirement is 8 tonnes per hectare. For microbial enriched vermicompost, 5 tonnes
per hectare. So, to to reduce the size of the vermi, the
compost material or the organic sources, we need to go for enrichment. If you can go for enrichment, we can have
to apply less amount which is very feasible. We can get the amount less amount. At the same time, we can meet the requirement
of the crops to have a better growth and yield of the crops. So, on. So, that is why, the when you go for the organic
farming the enriched vermicompost either the microbial enriched or any specific nutrients
rock enriched to meet the phosphorous and the mica enriched compost or the enriched
compost to have calcium magnesium mica for the potash and the microbial enriched farms
nitrogen fixing organisms or the phosphorous solubilizing or potash releasing bacteria
that can be incorporated in composting process to have a better availability of minerals
from nitrogen in the main field itself. So, ah that is how based on the your enrichment,
we can minimize the ah requirement of the organic resources ah by from 24 tonnes to
5 tonnes. So, there is a huge reduction in the requirement
of organic resources by doing vermicomposting and enriching with microbes and also other
rock minerals . See, the pest and disease ah of ah wheats,
usually the aphids ah aphids we can control biological control agents ah such as lady
ah lady beetles and parasitic wasps and or the fly ah Syrphid fly maggots fungal which
are often abundant in say in small grains. So, we can have the biological control agents. Also, you can use the Trichoderms that can
be released in the field. So, that they can control many pest and diseases. In addition to this, we can go to regular
spray of the as we discussed the earlier, the pest and disease control this ah cow dung
urine mix and also, the cow dung urine jiggery pulse powder ah that mix and that that formulation
can be sprayed regularly 10 days interval. So, that we can keep the crop free from many
insecticide or the insect pest and diseases. . And armyworm also, that is a as you see
the armyworm, that is a also very common in case of the wheat crops. To control this armyworm, we can go for the
biological insecticides , bio pesticides , that is pyrethrum as we discussed Pyrethrum, how
to prepare Pyrethrums. We have discussed earlier class. So, using pyrethrum in 10 days interval and
20 gram of pyrethrum powders in 10 litre of water in 2 gram per litre of water. In case of the spray at 10 litre of water,
20-gram pyrethrum can be used and that can be sprayed to regularly 10 days interval to
control this armyworm. . Ah Loose smut as say this a for the loose
smut or the leaf rust sorry fungal disease. So, the certified seeds in organic farming
as discussed either this loose smut or the leaf rust. So, as causes due to the fungal fungal disease
fungus certified seed fields are inspected. For loose smut, strict standards are enforced
to collect the seeds. That is, a free from any pest and disease
infestations seeds from field with loose smut should be rejected; should not be used in
case of organic farming. So, using certified seeds is highly effective
way to avoid loose smut. Similarly, leaf rust organic producers must
select variety with a good resistance to leaf rust and select varieties that have a combination
of ah powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance. So, I am because the seed the source so many
pathogens many disease in the field appears to the seeds. So, while collecting seeds seeds should be
collected from a trusted source and this should be free from the pest and this infestation
those seeds can be useful. So, can you minimize many pest and this infest
in the field. In addition, , we have to provide you have
to maintain in organic farming itself is a preventive measure as I discussed by doing. So, organics using the organic manures in
the field because of the the soil environment changes release of carbon dioxide in the soil
that causes the ah death of the many pathogenic bacteria. And because of the because, as we are applying
the organics that increases population of many beneficial microorganisms and there is
a feed materials, food materials for the pathogens also limited that way also there there also
ah the population is reduced and applying this ah, either the botanical pesticides or
the doing organics and as you are the as itself, organic farming the slow release of nutrients. So, that . So, there is a secreted in the
leaf canopy leaf. So, in that way also, there that is a less
infested by the pest and disease. So, doing organics as a preventive and also
as we discussed earlier classes, the formulations of the ah ah cow dung, cow urines and the
neem leaves or the garlic chilli extract, the formulation as we have discussed those
formulations can be sprayed because those are inexpensive. So, those are available with the farming community
having a cows is an integral part of organic farming. So, having cattle. So, having cow dung and preparing the cow
dung based products using the neem leaf are the green chilli garlic extracts. So, this formulation can be sprayed regular
intervals of 10 days or 15 within 2 week intervals. So, that as a preventive measures to avoid
the infestation of any pests and diseases. So, this if you see ah. So, ah by doing. So, ah by doing the organic farming, we are
trying to the meet the the maintain the yield level. Because, specially as we discussed crops the
challenge to have the same yield levels using the chemical chemical farming ah by you have
to add the huge amount of ah organic fertilizers , organic manures to have the same yield levels
as of chemical farming. But, the beginning I can I can advice at the
beginner, to avoid the yield loss, we can go for the . Because, especially the the locations
like tropical country tropical countries where the the rate of mineralization is very fast
in that case. So, to meet the requirement of the crops we
need to apply the ah chemical fertilizers and the organic as the combinations the beginning
of the organic farming. Later, when the soil fertility gets improved
with a continuous addition of the organic manures, we can slowly reduce the chemical
fertilizers and fully convert to the organic farming. So, there are some research in formation of
the quality of the products of the rice and wheat ah using the organic technique organic
production technology. So, ah there is a Gi Soo Et Al 2007. They have reported there are no difference
in amylose and protein contents within organically grown and ordinarily grown rice. So, ah they almost same the other thing that
they; however, the superoxide dismutase that is enzyme that is activity of methanol extract
from organically grown rice were higher than those of the conventional rice. So, there is a superoxide dismutase that is
a enzyme which fight against the cancer disease like cancer disease as a anti-oxidants. So, those are higher in case of the organically
produced rice as compared to convention rice . And, second report from Saha et al 2007,
they have organic nutrient source can perform comparatively as well as as well as a chemical
and physio chemical properties cooking quality of rice. If not better in some parameters than inorganic
fertilization. So, there is a. So, there is not much difference in case of
the either chemical properties physio chemical properties or cooking quality of rice. They are same ah ah as of the ah conventional
farming and there is a Mader Et Al 2007, they have reported high wheat quality in organic
farming is achievable by lower inputs. Thereby, safeguarding natural resources this
ah with ah organic resources, the the quality of wheat is better as compared to the chemical
farming chemical chemical fertilizers. So, the as you see the cereal crops production,
you concerned specially for the tropical and sub-tropical ah countries. So, beginning to protect the yield to have
a same yield at beginning, we can go for the integrations of the organic and chemicals. But, we should avoid we must not use any type
of synthetic pesticides. That should be banned. Nothings in organic farming. We should not use any type of chemical pesticides,
but as per the nutrient is concerned , to maintain the yield levels at the beginning,
being the crop specific for specially cereal crops, we can we can go for the integrated
nutrient at the beginning. But later on, we can minimize use of the chemical
fertilizer slowly. You can convert to fields of organic fertilizer. So, that we can have a we can maintain the
yield level. We should not sacrifice the yield levels. But we should not use any synthetic pesticides
in case of the organic farming or organic productions ah because, having the synthetic
pesticides, we can you can determine the quality of the produce. We want to have better quality and the healthy
healthy produce. At the same time, the production should be
maintained. So, go for the organics ah as a as nutrient
managements go for the organics and as for the formulations we have given. So, use those organic formulations regularly,
maybe 10 days intervals. So, that the crop should be ah protected from
many many pest and diseases and you can maintain the yield levels. At the same time, we can have a better quality
of the produce and at the same time, we can have a better environment to living. With this, we conclude this ah lecture. Thank you very much .

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