So, I welcome you to lecture ah 31 . The crop
planning and rotation design in a organic system . This is a continuation of the ah
previous lecture lecture 30 ah. So, ah we have discussed in the last lecture the type
of crops to be selected when you go for the conversion or the transition from the conventional
farming to organic farming . So, what step you should follow and the crop
types because that the beginning of the year when are you going for the transition periods
the yield may be reduced ah. So, to compensate the yield loss we should choose the crops
the crops that can that require that are that have the demand of the less nutrients and
slowly ah as as you go on with the progress of the years transition then and third year
you go for the ah organic k labeling of the product .
So, in that year you can grow the crops of the high neutron demanding by the time probably
the soil might haven build up with the fertility due to the ah introducing leguminous crops
or the low nutrient require requiring crops . So, ah hm. So, that the yield loss in the
main crop that can be compensated by the way of managing of the soil fertility .
So, ah here we we can discuss what is the planning of the how can ah plan the crops
in a particular area or particular farm you are planning to convert your form to organic
ah from the transition periods and the organic productions.
So, what are the management and specially the crop selections how you can say the crops.
So, can you can have a ah good returns economic returns at the same time you can have a better
quality of the prods ah predict produce in organic forming .
So, ah as I discussed in the last class the ah crop mix or the crop plan or the crop combinations
or the rotations . So, that depends upon the know on the four major components as you go
for crop planning in the crop rotation plan the components are one is the resource technology
resource technology ah market and institutions these are the four major pillar.
When you go for the planning of these ah the rotation designs or the crop productions because
know you need the resource resource means you are the ah land labour capital infrastructure
these comes under the resource and also of the natural resources that means, the ah climatic
conditions of the locations. So, that indicates what type of crops you are choosing .
So, the resources then technology means the ah the technological knowledge to build knowledge
means the the organic farming practices the equipment used for the organic farming starting
from your land preparations to the sowing of the seeds the nutrient organic manure applications
then intercultural operations weeding operations spray a plant protection measures and finally,
the harvesting and post harvest processing through.
So, the technology that indicates what type of crops you are do you are trying to choose
what type of crops you are you are selecting in the rotation plan then of course, the market
. So, as we discussed market is the very very important because you are the selection of
the crops depends on the market potentials .
If somebody has to go for the productive or the away ah the benefit economic because we
are going for the organic forming of economic output the better returns high higher economy
in that case you have to see the the market where you are going to ah sell your produce.
So, that is as we discussed last class if you do not know where is a market how to sell
your produce better not to plant it . So, market is very important then institutions
that is a linkage where you can have a collaborations . Where you can have a ah as a consultancy
feedback advice you can take . So, you have to collaborate institutions these are the
four major pillars of the crop planning . So, that indicates as we discussed this is a then
based on this the resource technology, market, and institutions we can have a goal the objectives
resource goals . Then based on these market and the production
of shunts the plan we can have a crop mix or the crop crop rotations or the cropping
system plan and which can be ah ah seen in the in between based on the weather or the
market we can have a alternate plans to meet the demand or the to meet the require objectives
and also at the same time it should be economically viable ecologically sustainables and that
can give the maximum profit this is how say the crop rotation plan .
So, we discuss the ah effect of rotation crops how ah they ah influence the specially the
soil fertility as you see as you go for rotations you see the as we have ah discussed earlier
classes when you go for the rotation design or the selecting crops in the rotations you
should choose such type of such type of crops means .
There should be defraud crops should follow swallowed crops cereal crops may be legumes
crops because crops of same group should not grown should not be grown together .
So, that they are should not be any competitions among the crops or the between the crops for
the nutrients or water and also there will be less incidence of pest and diseases . For
this research report I can see research informations studies have shown that organic matter are
losses from the intensively tilled ah row crops can be regained .
When the field is rotated with a perennial leguminous crops that means, if you are growing
the two crops one is the corn crops that require intensive tillage , conventional tillage and
if are going for the conventional tillage operations then you can see from this figure.
So, there is a decrease in soil organic matrix are declined in soil organic matter with a
continuous cultivation of the corn crops that means, the conventional tillage the with this
operation if you go to 0 to around 25 years it is seen if you continues corn planting
with conventional tillage there is a sharp decline in soil organic matter from the beginning
to the end of this 25 years . And after that what is said is this is a first rapid rate
of organic matter decomposition from tillage is stocked under legume or grass crop if you
go for the After that there is a legume grass crops then
there is slowly increase in the soil organic matter content of the soils that means, with
conventional tillage and growing same type of crops of course, there is a decline in
organic matter of the soils . And as you replace the crops with the grass legume crops then
there is a increase in organic matter content of soil . So, the organic matter content is
against build up that is a accumulated as regained ah by changing the cropping pattern.
So, that you say by grass or legume developed extensive root systems and that have continually
a grow and and also die of the dead root supplies source of phase and the active organic matter
to the soil which feeds the ah this soil or as a feeds soil organisms and that are involved
in building soil aggregation that means, having the grass crops or the legume crops they leave
lot amount of the huge amount of crop residue in the soils .
So, So, that helps active this active organic matter that acts the food materials for the
the native soil microbes and they build up their populations ah by the tab . So, in that
way they can build the soil aggregation at the soil organic matter content. This is how
the ah loss and gain of the ah organic matter with the change of cropping systems as you
go on from the corn planting to legume crops there is a increase in soil organic carbons
and more away if you if you go for the tillage operation also if you follow the ah minimum
tillage or zero tillage stable mass tillage in that case also.
So, that the organic matter or the organic matter content can be regained can be accumulated
by continuously following the the conjuration tillage as you say or the stable mass tillage,
minimum tillage or the zero tillage operations .
So, this research report has been collected from crop rotations on organic form farms
a planning manual ah there is a natural R ah AES natural resource agricultural and engineering
and services ah for this How the they have the long term experiment
where you have the where you have seen that is a the building or the loss in organic matter
or the change in organic matter content of soils by change in crops .
And if you go to designing the crop rotation experiment .When you go for the evaluation
of the rotation design you have the two alternate plans of course, ah based on your the market
or the know the resource and technology and the institution linkage we are developed some
crop plan also at the same time as we discussed we should have a alternate crop plan in case
of weather uncertainty or the map case or the market fluctuations through toggle those
situations we can have a the second plan on table.
So, ah. So, when you go for the evaluations of this or the designing of a crop rotation
experiment where experiment. So, there should be some of the things we should be consider
in mind flexibility so that means. So, there is opponent need to change management and
includes that is a new aspects of or investigations over the course of the experiment so that
means, there should have some rooms to to make a change and make addition additions
or the deletions of the some of the components as and when needed.
Changes should be kept in an absolute minimum within a rotation force that means, a small
changes can be accommodated that means, this systems should flexible to accommodate some
changes as and when needed during the force of the investigations then scale also .
So, better to have the plot and field should have a ah should be as large as possible because
when your planning go for large scales that means, farmers field ah not exactly at the
small ah a small plot in the experiment . So, the it should address the large scale ah that
can be scaled up to larger area . And the time often as you go for the ah organic farming
or the rotation designing it is a it is a time taking process .
So, if you if you continue for the more more years then you can have a better interpretation
of the results for the evaluation of the cropping system design .
And also ah when you go for the design the design you can choose ah as a factorial design
that is a specially for this ah there may be two factors or more than two factors of
the experiment ah for the evaluation of this rotation design
And the management details detail guidelines on the on the practical management of the
crops and the plots should be formulated in order to minimize the effects of change in
management over time and the ah the that means, this should be ah already ah the planning
that should be made much before the implementation definitely and the management staff often
needs to learn the functions of rotations before the proper experiment can starts .
And of course, the minimum data sets say protocols when you go for the the experimental for the
design for the evaluation of the rotation experiment then the protocols of the experimental
protocols that should be set and the data minimum data set because without ah .
So, that is the the effective of a proper evaluations what are the important data sets
that should be documented what are the methodology and what data what are the data should be
collected for the ah crop rotation experiment ah evaluation .
So, ah this is the when you go for the ah rotation balance is the rotation design experiment
rotation balance. So, what do you mean by the rotation balance means when you go for
the ah designing or the planning a rotation experiment . We plan for the seasonal annual
or the multiyear farm plan and also we plan for the field scale and the farm scale that
means, the field to farm . Ah if you see a particular farm there maybe
ah many fields ah fields of you can have different types all the field may not be same some fields
may be up land ecosystem say farm may have the area around 50 hectares or hundred hector
farm may be there in that farm ah some field may be up land some field may be lower land
some field may be medium land . And also the field there many entity the entities maybe
there some may have the the after some may have the crops some may have the livestock
some may have the horticultural crops seasonal crops .
So, looking at those aspects those entities or those enterprise when you go for the rotation
balance or the rotation design we go for the we look for the annual and also the multiyear
rotations annual means that means, the if you make for annual plan that gives a seasonal
returns every year returns that leads to economic output. So, every year there should be some
return. So, that is a that is as a business plan.
So, there should be return of every year and the ah multi year that is a perennial crop
because when you have the the crops like perennial crops you have anchored crops as a fruits
fruit crops and you have the other entities like you know you have the livestock or the
poultry where your return may not get on the beginning of the years.
So, return you may get after two years three years depending upon the crop or the depend
depending up on the enterprise in that case thats a multi years In in for those conditions
ah we look for the mainly that focus on biology that means, ah when you go for the multi year
crop plans . In addition to annuals then multi year over
lapping over the annuals then that indicates in addition to economic returns it indicates
other values like biology means it should give a better ah output the production should
be high at the same time ah you should have environmental sustainable means there should
less emission of green house gas at the atmosphere .
So, having the multi year plan . So that means, the the enhancing soil fertility the maintaining
soil fertility in a long term basis ah that is taken into account when you go for the
multi year crop planning that means, building the soil fertility or as we discussed just
before or the increase in the soil carbon content over the years that comes in the multi
year crop rotation or the multi year plans having different entities that together in
the systems . And also ah we should see there is a less
emission of that means, green house gas at atmosphere . The system should have the less
impact or no impact on the environments. So that means, this is a sustainable environments
ah that lay minimizing green house gas emissions at the same time we have the better productions
and the better quality ah good quality . Because as we are going for the organic concept
you are using the organic input management . So, it indicates there should be food quality
in the quality of the food is much better better environment. So, less pollutions of
the water and less pollution of the air . So, better environment and the high productions
. So, this looks to the biological value when
you go for the multiyear crop plan. So, as we see see the rotation planning balances.
The management of field and the farm level decision on an annual and the multi year basis
the annual farm level decision lead to prioritize the business concerns and the multiyear decisions
taken to prioritize the and accommodate the biological demand that as we discussed. So,
there should be income journalism you should have the high income high profit profit should
be maximized at the same time if you go for the multiyear planning you should see .
So, this sustainable means there is a less effect or zero effect on the environments
. And and also there is a build up of a soil carbon the soil fertility is ah improved over
the years and at the same time the quality you get the better and better quality for
the for the better human health . So, as you see the rotation balance. So, these
are the components as we discussing here crop rotation requires multi dimensional thinking.
So, when you go for the planning or the design as a field scale or the farm scale integrating
the farm scale will integrate the field scale because in farm there may be several fields
. So, you have the when you go for the planning
of this rotations we have to take account of the field at the same time the farm as
a whole whole and also annual and multiyear you think the the long term planning thinking
the and also multi dimension means number of entities how many entities we can accommodate
in the farms . So, like the crops life stocks or the fishery
or the poultry. So, those you need multidimensional thinking can be taken to consider when you
go for the crop rotations. And the rotation management requires understanding both the
whole farm and the each individual field and balancing field and field and the farm scale
decisions. So, so that means, ah as you discuss the the field may be in the farm all field
may not of same fertility or the may not be of same topography some some field may be
a high land some field may be lowlands. So, that means, when you go for the rotational
design you have to consider you have to have a decision making process you have to understanding
about the field where you are operating and the whole farm as a whole to have a proper
decision then on successful farms rotation planning is a rolling and the responsive process
as you go from rotation ah. So, you should get response from this rotations and expert
farmers are ah continually balancing annual and multi years decisions because as a short
annual means short term plan and the multi year is long term plan.
So, when you go for the rotation design in a farm we look for the both we look for the
annual and we look for the multi years . So, annual plan means that gives each year return
that means, from seasonal crops like your you have the vegetables or may be floriculture
or the field crops like a serials oil seed pulses . So, those crops are rotated . So,
they give the annual returns or the return every year may be every six months you can
get returns and the multiyear planning where you have the ah perennial crops like the artier
crops or you have the different entities like your you have the life stocks poultry fishery
. So, there you can get the the return from
return multiyear that is a. So, . So, both the short term and long term is important
because annual and the multiyear planning is is successful for this ah rotation design.
So, business decision must be optimized for annual returns and cash flow then expert growers
indicate that in any given season market opportunities and logistical needs maybe may override the
biological concern. That means, the depending upon the market potential if there is a market
for depending upon the crops or the entities. So, as we are planning . So, we are looking
at the market. So, how what is the demand of market which crop you can grow. So, that
you can sell it very smoothly very comfortably and you can get a good price.
So, that is taken by account. So, that is a major factor that content that decides the
the crops to be grown then experts manage multiple interacting factors as they implement
crop rotation. So, the there . So, there the . So, those things as as you go on process
of rotation design. So, the either the the neutron management, the pest management , the
wood management . So, those are taken cares .
Organic farmers relay on rotations and long term soil quality to deal with the problems
and ensure the productivity on the fields. So, as we discussed already this one. So,
we need the long term soil fertility soil fertility has to build up enhanced ah long
term basis ah in organic forming when you go for rotations and there should taken into
account how you can build up the soil fertility over the years .
And then you go for the ah organic transition or the production plan how you can go for
the organic production. So, . So, these are the some of the steps you need to follow when
you go for the ah organic transitions and the this this plans has to be take taken care
when you are converting your field from conventional forming two organic forming the first one
. The set your objectives because you know this
is for any business ah if you go for the ah any business or forming is a business then
you have to set your objective what is the objective for what you are going to make a
organic . So, you are going for the field crops or the veg vegetables the agriculture
ar[ture]- crops or the poultry or the life stock. So, depending upon these or you have
integrations as you say so that means, your objective has to be set what you are going
to do what what production you are what type of production depending upon the then you
have to take care of the climate and the ah resource and the technology and institution
based on that you have to set your objectives what is your objectives .
Suppose somebody objective has only to produce the vegetables the cache crops vegetable crops
vegetables in the field. So, or somebody has the the milk production or many meat productions
or some may have integration of all vegetables serials basic silver grains oil seeds and
wheat production based on the resource technology available institution market you have to set
your objectives what type of ah entities or enterprises and what should be your objective
accordingly you can set your objective . Then follow part by part transition to organic
once you have set your objectives then go for transitions for a field suppose you will
give example of a field crops if you are going the for growing a field crops then you have
to divide the field into four parts. Suppose this is a field whether you are going to have
the crops maybe vegetable crops or field crops cereal crops or the oil seed crops that pulses
pulses that case ah you divide the field into four parts field one field two field three
and fold field four. And also you can at the area that depends upon the the type of the
topography ah the soil suppose some field is up land low land medium land of the that
depending upon the field situation you can have a four almost equal parts or may be some
some on on even that is no problem, but you have to divide the field into four parts .
Then make a cropping plan in transition based on market potential and transition needs . So,
if . So, make a cropping in a transition periods. So, from one field you can starts part by
part. So, field four or you can start the transition
and the crop planning depends upon the market or the resource available technology and the
institutions . So, that you can have a plan here implement these on the for field four
then analyze the economics of this transitions .
So, ah look looking at the history or the informations from the from the base experiments
. So, if you go for that transition the plan of the organic power production plan for free
for any type any field then what is the the returns then can have the economic returns
of that plan . Then prepare an alternate plan in case of
weather and market uncertainty . So, looking at the as you see market un certainty or there
may be weather fluctuation sometimes it may be drier sometime they (( )) or the drought
looking at the extreme conditions we can have a the second alternate plan must ready is
because whether you cannot prediction you cannot do for a long term basis.
So, when you go for the seasonal plan. So, based on the the future weather of be two
months or three months weather the forecasting whether the rainfall or the monsoon should
be normal or there is some variation or the dry conditions . So, depending upon that the
crop can be shear changed actual decision . Suppose you are planning for a rice crop
in case of the ah up land eco system or the low land ecosystem up land ecosystem based
on the normal rainfall if there is monsoon is normal.
In case there is a fluctuation monsoon monsoon or the prediction there will be dry years
. There will be variability in monsoon then you may switch over from rice to some other
crops like corn crops can be taken instead of rice crop . So, because corn crops require
less water that can survive in even if the ah less rainfall areas .
So, accordingly. So, you can have a alternate plan or in case have they very fraud years
you are planning a fraud years that maybe fraud condition in that case you have some
other crops you can shift to rice crops which can sustain on the fraud conditions . So,
likewise prepare alternate plan an in case of the weather or the market uncertainty same
for the market uncertainty . Once you have the plan ready then actual resources
and organized the use of resources within timeline . So, once you have made the plan
the plans for the ah for the transition or the organic productions then accordingly the
resource should be you know the source obtain the resource the resource should be gathered
the acquire the resources and organized the use of resources with time line then it times
will active times should be prepare at what time what type activities should be performed
to attend or to reach the goal. Then implement the plan and follow record
keeping at every stage. So, that is very important as we discussed also earlier class. Whatever
you do in a organic farming record keeping is very very important starting from the land
preparation or you have planning there is a planning from planning it is then land occasion
of resources from where you are getting resources suppose seeds fertilizer the manures or seed
start from where are you getting those should be documented proper records should be there
and up to the harvest and post harvest whatever the operations you are performing each operations
should be documented because those documents your because you will be requiring when you
are certifying agent will review one additive records that is required documentation is
highly essential this record keeping is very important when you go for the applying for
certification process. Then ah make decisions and take action this
is very very important as and when needed to solve any problem and evaluate the resource
of the the result of the decision that means, what you say ah suppose that is anything unwanted
things may happen because you unexpected things may happens during the ah course of the experiment
because planning because suppose you have the plan there is a immediate or the or the
sudden outbreak or the any decease or the pest .
So, that that you are not usually prepared to tackle in that case. So, you have to take
a quick decisions and also implement the actions as quick as possibles of your decisions and
at the same time you have to evaluate this say the results or the decisions whether this
decision was proper or wrong decision it may be wrong decisions sometime not necessary
that always your decision may be right sometimes it may be wrong decision, but you can get
a learning even the wrong decisions you can take you can take a learning you can have
a learning of this your the decisions . Then you have to analyze the results of the
decisions then monitor the progress towards the goal . So, regular monitoring.
So, in between. So, there is a regular assessment. So, whether we are we are meeting when you
are attending as per the goals. So, these are the the steps that should be
followed when you go for the organic transitions or the conventional field to organic fields
that means, you have you have the field you divide the field four parts and go on the
transition the have a plan transition plan and go for the implementation of the plans
from the from the from the year the transition year.
So, as you see example you can give example for transitions ah.
So, this is a field plan of organic rice chick organ organic rice chickpea system . So, . So,
this is a whole field. So, this divided in to four parts field one field two field three
and field four in case of field four. So, when you go for the transition . So, live
field one field two field three start your transition from field four from field four
ah you have the crop transition plan. So, here we have taken the the beginning of
the transition you have the system of rice chickpea you want to have the rice and rice
chick chickpea your main crop for the systems . In this case transition years we we are
introducing soya bean in the Kharif season followed by radish in the on dry season they
are winter seasons . So, the purpose of having soybean and radish now you have discussed
these are the crops which require less nutrient less demand of nitrogen.
So, having soybean or the radish at the beginning at the transition that can. So, that we can
get the same yield yield level can be maintained. So, the yield loss can be compensated having
the soybean or radish because they have the less demand of nutrient nutrients. So, through
organic farming we can attend the yield as of chemical farming for those type of crops
soybean or radish . So, ah and the second year we are going to send soybean crops and
the carrot soybean is a leguminous crops . So, in the way it can fix atmospheric nitrogen
and you can build up the soil fertility and the inertia was changing the carrots carrots
also a low nutrient demanding crops and once you have done the two years then you go for
the third year the the you are the main crop as you are as you are the system rice chickpea
system and this is this is the third year the product can be labelled as a organic product
and from the third year you can it . Because I already have followed transitions
for the last two years and you can apply transit with the certificate in the third years and
third year will be a review process there will be proper revision and the verification
of the system of the production systems then you can you can you can apply for certification
you can get the certification organic you can you can sell your organic from the third
years . The similarly from the ah the field three .
So, you can go for all the fields are conventional and the field three is second year you can
start for the transition and accordingly you can get organic in the fourth year and same
process for a field two you can go for transition from the third year and you can get the organic
the produce in the fifth year and the finally, the field one you can start the transition
fourth years and you can get organic in the sixth year that means, after fifth year from
sixth there onwards the whole farm is converted to organic.
So, by step by step as you go for this one the organic you can get the whole farm organic
from the sixth year we have one economic analysis of this system.
If you see ah after third year we did analyze what is the economic returns of the organic
rice chickpea system . So, we compare three fertilizers one is from this our experiment
where one plot we applied no no fertilizer is this is this is grow on as a native size
ah as a as a control one and the other other other plot we have plot only chemical fertilizers
and the other the third plot organic fertilizers . That means, no chemicals. So, in this if
you see the yield of rice and chickpea. So, in case of no fertilizer control yield
is a very low and the chickpea is was grown on an residual fertility of rice no fertilizer
applied to the chickpea crop . Only fertilizer applied to rice crop and chickpea
was grown after harvest of rice in the soil in the same soil without adding any fertilizers
even if a chemical fertilizer organic fertilizer .
So, that is why see the residual effect of no fertilizer is nothing . So, the chickpea
is very low and same for the chemical fertilizer there is a very because as you discussed earlier
also is a very sort acting and also the very fast release and it has very low or no residual
as good as a no application of fertilizer because yield remains same chickpea whether
you go for no fertilizer or the chemical fertilizer they have no residual , but but if you see
a organic fertilizers it has a high residual effect and the yield we are getting from the
residual of organic is 600 and 50 k g per hector . Whereas, in case of chemical fertilizer
is 105 kg per hector of chickpea field that mean it indicates that that organic fertilizer
has a high residual activity it can because the residual activity organic fertilizer .
That can meets some of the nutrient demand of chickpea crops at it can give some of the
returns which is which is based significantly higher than that of chemical fertilizer . And
use this if you see the this is a cost of production of both rice and chickpea and this
is a gross return of rice and chickpea and if it is net return in case of no fertilizer
there is a loss around 20850 degrees per hector because .
So, as because you are spending everything land preparation seeds seeds labour everything
irrigation you are putting everything on no fertilizers . So, there is a negative return
the loss one if you are going chemical fertilizer the return is around 37625 rupees per hectare
whereas, you are going for organic fertilizer the return is around 51300 rupees per hectare
and if see because there . So, there is a increasing return the we have
put in organic fertilizer organic the organic farming as compared to chemical farming. The
price selling price of the produce we have kept 23 percent higher in organic forming
as compared to chemical farming and also there is a production cost is higher in organic
farming because you are using the the vermicompost either say high dose as compared to the chemical
fertilizer. So, because of that the production cost is
higher in case of the organic farming though there is a high production cost and because
high residual effect and it compensate the nutrient requirement of the structuring crops
. So, you are able to get the higher return in case of the organic farming as compared
to chemical farming . So, the point is that here .
When you go for the ah rotation designer crop planning and rotation design you should keep
in mind that the type of crops you are choosing in the beginning at the transition periods
when you are targeting a main crops transition periods take the crops which can which requires
a low nutrients and less maintenance and that can suppress their weight growth in that way
we can we can build the soil fertility for your main main crops and also different type
of crops combinations should be chosen and you go for the economic analysis you can see
that the organic farming that if you do properly proper management scientific management organic
forming definitely will give the better return as compared to the chemical farming. With
this I conclude this lecture. Thank you very much .