Lecture 37 : Organic Standard

So, good morning to all. So, I welcome you to the lecture 37, the last
week of this lecture organic standards. So, we have discussed earlier. So, with respect to the organic farming for
sustainable agricultural productions we discussed about the the principles and the concepts
of organic farming, as a introduction to organic farming, in the ah the nutrient management
or the the productions of the organic fertilizers like a vermicompost or enriched vermicompost. The plant protection measures how you can
prepare the bio pesticides botanical pesticides from the ah plant extracts, that can be used
for protecting pest and is a crops. And also we discussed about the management
practices of field crafts, horticulture crops and plantational crops in organic farming. The nutrient management lamb preparations,
production practices and the pest and its controls in for the organic crop protections. We also ah discussed ah the ah organic means
the how the organic foods can lay to the better health, antioxidant capacity of the foods
and vegetables, ah how the produce of the organic or origins are the better than the
produce of the conventional products. Today will be discussing about organic standards,
because no as we as I have gone through the classes you know the how you can produce crops
organically, how can you manage your crops, and also the crop planning transition to organic
farming. So, the some sets of ah rules or the standards
are established for the organic productions. By knowing this standards, so this helps in
building a trust between the producers and the consumers because bringing transparency
between the producers and the consumers and also it can help in a better marketing of
the organic foods and bringing the brand of the organic foods and having the consumer
confidence on the organic foods by having some set of organic standards. So, in this ah the what is the aim of this
and the scope of this organic standards. Means this standard provides the basis for
sustainable developments of organic ah productions while ensuring the effective functioning of
the market. Because as you are going for the organic market
this is a challenge because unlike the European countries or the developed countries were
this has ah gained a momentum already is established organic farming, organic products are the
better preferred by the consumers and the consumers want to pay the premium price for
the organic products pickers. So, already is a trust building because certification
is very strong and if the produce is organic the consumer have assurance is a organic foods. So, that type of marketing or the organic
foods and guaranteeing fair competition some with the conventional products. And ensuring consumer confidence that is very
very important the consumers should be satisfied about this produce and protecting the consumer
interest, yeah. So, it establishes the common objectives and
principles ah in the to underpin the rules set our under this standards concerning that
means, all stages of productions, processing and distribution of organic products and their
control. So, there is a setup standards governing as
you have discussed earlier the organic productions ah principles and practices, and this the
including your land preparation, nutrient management, and plan protection measures,
and the transition plan how you can follow for the ah organic certification process that
is that is from the productions, and the processing, till up to the market distribution; then,
the use of indications referring to organic productions in labelling and the advertising
also. So, these are the aims of the ah organic ah
standards this, also the standard lays down the specific rules on organic productions,
labellings and control in respect of products. And the scopes this ah this can standards
are applied to the following products originating from agricultural ah productions that a live
or unprocessed agricultural products. Then, processed agricultural products ah for
use as a food, then vegetative propagating materials, and the seeds for the cultivations,
then the yeasts used as a food or the feed material. So, this can be included for the ah organic
standard purpose. So, for this ah if you go for the ah the organic
standard starting from the land preparations up to as we are dealing with the harvest and
the post harvest processing, will deal with our standards involved for the organic certification
process for the landscape, the land resource recommended thing. So, which is recommended for the organic production,
these are areas which should be managed properly and linked to facilitate by facilitated the
biodiversity. So that means, the growing different crops
of ah many varieties of crops. So, the accommodate as a rule of principles
of organic farming. So, maintaining the genetic biodiversity,
various property many crops and many varieties of a particular prop can be grown. In general the area should not be heavily
fertilized, usually can choose the land which is less fertilized or layer not intensely
fertilized or may be the the land which is not cultivated earlier that can be used for
the organic farming purpose. Extensive pastures meadows and ah grasslands,
extensive orchards, hedgerows, trees and the forest line also can be used for this organic
ah from productions. Ecological rich fallow land or the arable
land that is a fallow lands, the land which was not cultivated for longer periods remaining
fallow and the arable lands land can be cultivable arable lands. So, those can be used for the organic ah productions
standards. So, the water ways or the pools ah the springs,
ditches, wetlands, swamps and other watery areas which are not used for the intensive
agriculture and aqua culture production that also can be converted to organics. The standard the certification programs are
developed landscape and the biodiversity standards. So, then we go for the once should the lands. Lands should not be heavily manure or heavily
fertilized, the land should be very fallow lands which because ah or the fallow for the
last several years, can be used for the organic productions. And the arable lands that is a suitable for
a cultivation of ah crops for growing of the crops those lands can be chosen for the organic,
organic production. So, one chose the lands then you can see the
varieties or the crops or the varieties which can be selected for the organic ah farming
or the organic production ah purposes. ah
So, there are some recommendations, ah and that means, the spices and varieties cultivated
should be adapted to the soil, and climate conditions and we resistant to several phase
and this is a that means, the spices or the cultivars we are choosing so that should ah
that should suitable for particular soils and particular climatic conditions. And also that cultivar should have the resistant
to ah many pests and diseases. And the choice of varieties of genetic diversity
should be taken into consideration because that is as a bad diversity we consider, as
a bad diversity as a components of the organic farming. Standards: when the organic seeds and the
plant materials are ah available, they must be ah used for the organic production practices. In case when the certified organic seeds and
the ah plant materials are not available, so chemically untreated conventional materials
can be used. So, it may not be perusable all the times
to get the organic seeds ah or the organic plant materials for the purpose of the ah
growing of the crops. So, when there is a this organic seeds and
plant materials are not available, then conventional seeds are the plant materials are allowed. We can use provided this should not be treated
with any chemicals. The use of genetically engineered seeds pollens,
transgene plants or the plant materials are not allowed in organic production. So, this this materials are prohibited ah
specially the genetic ah G or GMO, genetically modified organism they are strictly prohibited
ah from the use of the organic farming. So, the plant materials those are prohibited
are not allowed the GMO such a genetically modified organisms which have discussed the
ah classes also. ah Then we incompatibility and the potential
risk they pose on environment and the human health. So, they are not allowed the seeds, seedling,
ah plant propagations materials, inoculants, other microbial inputs, nutrient inputs, and
the biocides, and other crop production inputs containing GMOs are strictly prohibited from
use of the organic productions. Feed for organic livestock must not contained
any GMO and their derivatives. Even, the use of genetically engineered semen,
embryos and breeding stock and veterinary and the health care products containing GMOs
are prohibited. So, GMOs they are not used, though we are
now the ah in Europe also ah some they allow for the GMO crops because there is a high
yielding to increase the production and protect the from from the use of ah pesticides and
the fungicides. So, they allow, but in India. So, in organic farming as a natural farming
we do not permit do not allow GMO crops because it has a potential ah health risk to avoid
here the health risk or the to avoid the adverse effect on the human health. So, we must have a GMO seat, GMO in organic
production. Manures and plant waste more about the GMO
crops unless until you establish because you this is a the because the potential health
risk may happens as a cumulative after few years you can have the adverse effect of the
GMO crops on human health. So, ah once you have this seed material of
the planting stocks and the know the lands for the ah organic farming, then next comes
your the the manures, the inputs and the plant waste are the inputs for the organic productions. So, what are the inputs are recommended? The manures and plant wastes; so fertilizers
and management should minimize the nutrient losses because when you go for the manure
management or the fertilizer managements, we have discussed in the production practices
what is the time of applications and method of applications, how we can properly incorporate
ah in the fields. Even if the organic manures are the vermicompost
there should be well incorporated in the field at proper depth so that the loss will be minimum
to the atmosphere and also that can be a better utilization by the crops. So, that is a minimum loss to the nutrients
all manures should be composted and slurry should be aerated. We should not use any on uncomposted undecomposed
manures in the field, because if you are using the fresh manures I will say fresh waste materials
are the fresh cow dung you been applying in the field that has a adverse effect on crop
growth and development because the microbes are used for the decompositions of this waste
materials in the field itself. So, the crop may suffer from the lack of nutrients
from the in the field. So, to avoid that one the all the manures
should be properly composted before their application to the crop field and slurry also
should be aerated. So, because it can removed by the can be odorless
to minimize the odor and also to minimize the emission of greenhouse gas to atmospheres. Non-synthetic mineral fertilizers and brought
in fertilizers of biological origin those should be regarded as supplementary to to
and not a replacement of nutrient ah recycling because as you say that ah for organic farming
principles also we have discussed. So, should be ah it should be originated from
the farm itself all the waste materials should be composted, in the farm itself and the brought
in materials should be avoided ah as much as possible. Then accumulation of heavy metals and other
pollutants in the soil should be prevented. So, these are the ah recommendations for the
manures and the plant waste. What are the permitted for the organic farming? As you have discussed earlier straws that
means, the proper residues ah farmer manures, poultry manures from organic sources preferably
after being properly composted. So, whatever the the organic waste we are
using they should be well decomposed and well composted before applications to the crop
field. The plant waste materials and the ah plant
bi-products ah from organic food processing industries preferably after being treated
they can be used for the ah field slurry, urine and the what dirty water from organic
sources preferably after being aerated, slurry aeration must then microbials and the plant
extracts they are permitted for the organic productions. What are restricted? The restricted means the limited use. So, some materials are restricted means they
can be used with proper permissions from the certification agency. So, the restricted materials use of all plant
waste and animal manures, mushroom, house waste, waste from the food processing industry,
poultry manures from nonorganic sources they are restricted for use that means, know they
can be used, but there some restrictions. However, the need of them must be recognized
and approved by the certification body. So, they can be used with proper approval
from the certification agency. And they must receive the treatment specified
before they use details of the waste must be provided including its source of origin
should be should be known these waste can be used after being composted for at least
3 months. So, this waste materials they are originated
from the non-organic sources. So, they can be used with proper ah approval
from the certification agency and also those waste materials should be composted for at
least 3 months before their application. So, those are prohibited, those are sewage
sludge and from the cities or the city waste or the waste water sewage sludge or the municipal
waste and the peat soils. So, they are prohibited from the use of the
organic productions. They contains most ah the heavy metals and
contaminants are there, so unless they are, so those are sewage sludge and the peats they
are not allowed for the organic productions. The mineral fertilizers and the supplementary
nutrients as we have discussed because no ah for this a enriching the ah organic fertilizers
like vermicompost, if you want to have a enriched vermicompost productions, enriched specific
nutrients either the nitrogen or the phosphorus potash then you have to are some natural minerals
rock minerals during the composting process. So, recommended the mineral fertilizer they
can be used for the composition process or they can be directly applied to the ah field
also for the organic ah productions. Natural rock phosphates, calcined aluminum
phosphate rocks, minor minerals like ah calcareous magnesium rock, gypsum, ground chalk, lime
stone, Epsom salts, magnesium rock, clay. So, these are allowed for the organic productions. Then trace elements like the stone meals or
this a ground basalts, these are this allow. Potassium source like wood ash and plant extracts
that can be used for the organic productions. And the materials which are restricted because
they can be used ah limited use or they can be used with proper approval from the certification
agency. So, in options have the accepted materials
this can be used soluble fertilizers, is allowed with specific approval from the certification
body. And also the potassium sources like natural
rock potash or the sulphate of potash sulfur trace elements like boron, copper, iron, manganese,
molybdenum, cobalt, selenium, zinc. So, these are micro elements micro nutrients
they can be used as a spray as we observed the deficiency symptoms of this elements that
can be used in organic productions. Then dried seaweed meals, liquid seaweed,
basic slag and sylvinite, natural potash source there also used with proper approval from
the certification agency which are not used all the synthetic fertilizers as you see prohibited,
all the synthetic fertilizers are not allowed ah in the organic production. To see the weed control ah usually ah when
we talk about the ah weed control, so ah you will go for the physical method or the mechanical
methods or the may be cultural methods of weed control. So, what is recommended? The balanced rotations including weed suppressing
and weed susceptible crops. So, ah this a cultural practice ah we have
discussed in the ah lectures. So, what the rotations should be followed
for different type of rotations? Same crops should not follow, same crops in
the rotations, so where this same types of weeds does not ah ha proliferate does not
grow in the year after years to avoid that one go for cultural practices cultural controls. So, balanced rotational crops including the
crops which can suppress weeds and they can susceptible crops so that the weeds can be
can be controlled. Then composting the manures and the plant
waste and aeration of slurry that means, the by proper composting we can sum up weed seeds
are destroy the inactivated in the process of compositing the high temperature, and the
microbial decomposition process. And pre-sowing cultivations, this also planning
one of the practice ah for the cultural method of weed control by doing summer planning,
so you can increase the soil temperatures as compared to the ambient temperatures, by
raising the soil temperature this spoils some weed seeds at the same time also ah this also
inactivate or the kills some of the ah harmful insect pets and the pathogens also. So, pre-sowing cultivation is required ah
to remove the weeds and stale seed bed technique, this is a new one stale seed bed technique
means, we need to irrigate the field and we do allow the weeds do germinate. So, what about the weed population there? They do germinate by allowing the by putting
the proper water or providing the proper proper moisture and the temperature so that the seeds
whatever the weeds itself they do germinate. So, after they come up we do go for the manual
method of weed control by the remove the weeds. So, by the way; so we can control the weeds
for the crops and use of high seed rates, so this is usually ah sometimes you know ah
we ah do follow, we may not follow also using high purpose is if a high seed rate. So, this ah increases the population density
of the crops so that the weed seed may not be able to grow, may not compete with the
crop. Usually what happens in some cases having
the high the population density of the main crops may affect the yield of the crops because
of the competitions between the seeds of the same crop. So, ah you must try to avoid high seeded,
but we should go for the other methods please pre sowing cultivation and the stale seed
bed techniques by the the cultural practices we follow for controlling weeds. And what are the permitted for the organic
standards? Mulches, plastic mulches the black plastic
mulches you can see. So, this can be used for the controlling weeds
ah as this does not allow this solar radiation interceptions in the ground surface. So, weeds, weeds cannot grow here on the dark
condition conditions. So, this can control on the weeds black plastic
mulch. Then pre-emergence and post-emergence mechanical
operations and the flame weeding also permitted. What is prohibited? Use of agrochemicals, and hormone herbicides
ah in the crops or the edge of the crops it is not allowed in organic productions, and
steam pasteurization are the sterilization for this for the weed control is also not
allowed because by using the stream sterilization ah will be ah killing most of the beneficial
microbes also, gets affected, gets eliminated from the field that is why we do not allow
the sterilization of the soils for this weed control. Then pests and disease ah the recommended
is creation of diverse ah eco-systems ah and within an around the crop to encourage natural
predators by companion planting and the rotational cropping, use of resistant varieties and strategic
planting dates. So, these are all the the preventive methods
say the cultural methods of pests and the disease management having crop rotations,
growing different crops in rotations or choosing the crops ah specially the resistant to some
type of the test and diseases. And ah going for inter crop inter cropping
so that it can take different crops so that would the pest population can be minimized;
as we have discussed ah growing of this as seen the ah in the boundary of this the ah
rice plant it can minimize the brown plant to attack. Similarly marigold also grown the boundary
to protect the crop from the , many other pest, ah pest antigens. So, these are the cultural methods for the
ah pest and its management organic farming. So, in addition to this the permitted have
the mechanical and the biological control measure. We have discussed in detail the the mechanical
control measure and the biological control pesticides. Then restricted use of ah some chemicals are
used that, the following products practices required ah approval from the certification
body those are the copper sulphate, copper hydroxides, copper oxides, copper oxy chlorides,
and copper ammonium carbonates. So, these are used, can be used ah for this
pest and its management provided you need to take approval from the certification agency
for use of this ah products. Then what are prohibited? All this synthetic pesticides like formaldehyde
and phenols for the soil sterilization, so methyl, bromide and other chemicals soil sterilants. So, they are prohibited. The nut used for the organic productions. Seed dressing based on, mercurial and the
organo chlorine compounds that is also ah prohibited, all other synthetic pesticides
including aluminum or metal metaldehyde, those are prohibited steam sterilization or pasteurization
of soil for the pests and disease also prohibited. So, synthetic pesticides, the chemical pesticides
because the centrally government of India has banned many of the pesticides, pesticides
for use from the ah agricultural purposes. So, now because now it is a it is a very high
time to minimize the use or not restrict the use of the synthetic ah pesticides, for use
in agricultural production because you know this creates say this ling to the food and
health they as we discussed is a quite link well linked because whatever the health problem
do we face today. So, mostly they regulated what ah what about
the food we take regularly and there is a food you know that contains the many the pesticide
residues or the insecticide residues are there. So, they goes to food chains. So, you are suffering the toning diseases
like the cancers or the cardiovascular disease or many other disease are very common due
to the heavy intake of the pesticides which are highly carcinogenics and and that you
see the effect on the the adverse effect on human health. So, this, ah so these are the pesticide or
the synthetic pesticide should be many are banned now, but those should be ah restricted
or banned from agricultural purposes and more of the farmers should become dependent on
the bio pesticides or the cultural methods mechanical methods or the bio pesticides. And you can use the natural sources like cow
dung, as we discussed cow dung, cow urines and many of the pulse force can be used ah
for ah as a combinations to prepare the pesticides for controlling the pest and disease organic
farming. So, these are the some of the production practices. How we can ah do at the field labels we we
have discussed in detail in classes, but this a standard as per the national program for
organic productions in POP standards. So, standards are the guidelines when the
any business man or any any entrepreneur want to go for the organic productions, so guidelines
set to them. So, they have to follow the guidelines for
the organic production because as you are going for the business modes to brand their
product as a organic and to bring their product to consumer as a organic and to have a trust
to the and the building the confidence between the producer and consumers organic products. So, they have to follow some standards, before
they go for the certification process for the organic produce. So, after the production from the field of
course, the product should go for the should follow minimum standards for the processing
as well so that it can be labeled as a organic products. So, standards for the food processing after
harvest re-products. So, what have the the in brief what are the
practices we must follow so that the product can be labeled as organic in processing queue. The products shall be protected from nonorganic
and products and they should, should not be stored and transported together. So, after the harvesting the post harvest
processing when you are this storing at the products are the transporting products ah
like you are may be rice or the wheat or the grain products. So, this should be this should be operation
done should be separately not in the same baskets. So, that should be the non-organic products
should not mix with the organic products, during the storage or during the transport
operations. Then when go for the food processing we have
some coloring agents. So, when we go for food processing of this
ah products then the coloring agents like the flavors and the appetite stimulants, they
should be only from the natural sources, chemical sources should not be allowed for the organic
certification or the organic products. And the probiotics, enzymes, micro organisms
they are allowed. So, probiotics are the good for health for
the digestion process they are present in our also. So, ah the probiotics, enzymes of the microbes
ah benefits are the for the health point of view they have the ah health benefit point
of view. So, they are allowed in organic products. Water and salts may be used in organic products. So, they are allowed in organic products. Antioxidants and the preservatives only natural
sources are allowed, so ah not chemical sources or any antioxidants or any preservatives. Special conditions for the storage, they like
your control atmosphere storage cooling, freezing, drying or maintaining the desired humidity
is allow in organic productions or organic processings. Ethylene gas is permitted for ripening of
the foods, ah for the organic. Then by for the packaging usually we must
use the biodegradables, recyclable, reusable systems and eco friendly packaging materials
shall be used in organic food processings. ah
The package shall be closed in such a manner that distribution of the contents ah substitutions
of the contents cannot be achieved without manipulation of damage of the seals, because
no while packaging the organic products the sealing should be very perfect it because
the the take out of the materials from the inside cannot be possible without breaking
the seal of the the packaging materials. So, this sealing should be very perfect that
means, the substitutions for the contents should not be possible without breaking the
seals. So, this packaging, my packaging the then
the permissible packaging materials are the paper, wax papers, paper coated with polyethylene,
polystyrene and cold boxes with the polyethylene coating film. So, these are allowed for the permissible
packaging materials for the organic foods. So, from this lecture we can see this is the
ah while say as we discussed previous lectures are the organic managements, organic input
managements, organic pest managements and handling the products while ruing the organic. So, this is a brief about those ah those lectures
as standards, these standards by the national program for the organic productions. So, they have shared some standards when you
go for the initially for the organic conversions or the organic food productions we must follow
the standards by meeting the standards. So, we will that make a assurance that your
products are of the organic quality so that makes a connections between the producers
and the consumers. So, consumers has a trust where the trust
building and the producers, and once the the linkage is well established then it facilitate
better marketing of this organic foods. So, to have a better marketing of the organic
foods, to have the expansion of the organic food market, and bring the awareness among
the farmers for conversion of the land from the conventional to organics, so this standard
is a must. So, farmers the entrepreneurs they must follow
this standard to have a organic productions and to have a linkage better linkage between
the producers and the consumer. With this I close lecture. Thank you very much.

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