Lecture 7: Sustainable Agricutlture


Ok so, now, we will ah we will come to the
lecture 7 that is Sustainable Agriculture ; so, as ah Organic Farming and Sustainable
Agriculture. So, ah definitely organic farming leads to
sustainable agriculture . So, in this lecture, we will discuss; what is sustainable agriculture
and what are the approaches towards the ah sustainable agricultures .
So, ah if you see the different definitions of sustainable agricultures so, given by food
and agricultural organizations the management and conservation of natural resource base
and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment
and continued satisfaction of human needs of present and future generation such [dev/development]
development conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources is environmentally
non degrading technically appropriates economically viable and socially acceptable. So, this definition given by FAO; so, the
ah purpose of sustainable agriculture means you were the agricultural production practices
should be such there it should meet the need of the present generation without degrading
the resource base of the future generations; that means, . So, the practices that should
meet the demand and also; how are the management practices should not ah degrade the natural
resource base for the future generation. So, that is the definitions given by the ah
FAO. The other definition the center for integrated
agricultural systems as for them ah sustainable agriculture is defined as the farming system
and government policies that develop long term positive impacts on the followings like
agricultural profitability environmental quality food sufficiency quality and affordability
and rural family and community vitality. So; that means, the you should meet harmony
with that should be the profitable productions and healthy environments and food should be
available in sufficient [quail/quantity] quantity, quality and every people should have the access
to the food there is a food affordability every people can have the access to the foods
and there is a rural family and community, there should be a nurturing the healthy healthy
rural family. So, ah that is say the a farm is sustainable,
if it is able to maintain high level of production preserve and enhance the natural capital provide
a livelihood for a farm family sustain a rural culture that is what you say sustainability
and the other definitions. You see the ah board of international food
and agricultural development as for then the successful management of resource for agriculture
to satisfy the changing human needs while maintaining and enhancing the natural resource
base and avoiding environmental [de/degradation] degradations. So, that is what you say. So, that the ah resource space that should
meet the need of the present generations and the future generation too, then the next definition
ability of an agricultural system to maintain production over time, in the face of social
and economic pressure as you will be discussing because population is growing food demand
is also growing with the increasing populations and there is a huge economic pressure; that
means, there is a economic development . So, I can [me/maintaining] maintaining the
sustainability at the same time economic development. So, we are going the developing developing
further this economic development has to go on at the same time we need to maintain sustainability. So, there is a challenge. So, that is where the ability upon agricultural
system if that can maintain the productions over time; that means, in future as per the
need of the populations, it can maintain the populations in the face of social and economic
pressures without harming the environment that we can say the sustainable agriculture
. And the last one say one that should conserve
and protect natural resource and allow for long term economic growth by managing all
exploited resources for sustainable yield. So, these are the ah sustainable agriculture
agriculture; there is a even ah sustainable development goals. So, there are these seventeen. So, that includes from every aspects energy
ah productions consumptions ah climates. So, what are the um the below below water
above water poverties or social aspects economic aspects and all aspects are taken by the ah
sustainable development goals 7 aspects for the sustainability .
Ah ok if you go for the goal of sustainable agriculture we can say ah 3 components let
us say environmental health economic profitability and social equity. So, ah so, these are the 3 components, if
you are if you want to achieve sustainable in agriculture, it should give a the agriculture
impact the an environment . So, agricultural activity should protect the environment should
ensure a healthy environments and that that must give the economic profitable and the
social equity. So, ah what is say the 3 things are very important
because when you when you say. So, many things to ah ah to a an general ah
consumer all the public person it makes a confusions because ah environments economy
and social equity. So, the ah should be taken care when you go
for the sustainable agriculture environment means if you only environments or the economic
integration [sustailable/sustainable] sustainable economic development. If you got economics and social integrations
does a equitable social environments look for environments and the social integration
sustainable natural environments and to 3 integration; 3 intersections are 3 that is
a sustainable development where the environment economic and social equity plays a combined
role, if say this environment how the ah the environmental health environment society and
economy. The environmental is sustainable agriculture
should aim discuss minimizing greenhouse gas emission as we discussing how the because
the organic farm is a is a key for minimizing greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere. So, that is a environmentally sustainable
agriculture less emission less harm to environment and conservation of ecosystems. So, sustainable agricultures there should
conserve ecosystem in soil now you see that is a soil depletion soil erosion soil lost
year by year how to protect this soil because soil is that provides the ah crop growth that
that support a crop growth that helps a neutron glitch part on that helps neuronobtake and
the crop production systems. So, the conservation of ecosystem how we can
protect this soil how we can protect this soil fertility how we can maintain the soil
moisture; that is the one of the issues and there should be maintained through the sustainable
agriculture then ah finally, the protection of public health human health. So, this ah you should provide the food quality
better product in the produce the best quality of food for the consumer nurture the environment
and preserve energy; that means, sustainable agriculture that consumes less energy as compared
to conventional agriculture. So, this is the environment then economic
profitability see ah economic profitable sustainable agriculture should ensure that the farm families
as well as the society as a whole should benefit from the agricultural practice keeping in
view this sustainability approach and economic viability is a necessary conditions for sustainable
agriculturals and food system, but economic viability is about more than profitability. So, this should be profitable and if you say
economic viability is a long term the the practice, it should give profit and should
be economically viable. Social equity; if we see the Adam Smith; the
father of ah contemporary economics said no society can surely be flourishing and happy
of which the far greater part of members as poor and miserable hence for an approach to
be literally sustainable it should look into the feasibility and social justice first because
every peoples should have equal access to food they where access to food they should
live have social equity they have this ah see education education equal education for
all, this may be a difficult, but this is social equity every child must get the same
educations . So, ah this social equity this is ah this
can be achieved by supporting farmers who are committed to protecting the natural environment
and helping to make ecologically sound food and fiber systems and economical viables our
responsibility to help build food and a farming systems that they are socially acceptable
then generating employment equity for farmers farm workers and other employed in the systems
then ensuring adequate food clothing and shelter for all people for all people. So, that type of the social equity is also
integral part of the sustainable agricultural development; so, organic for you go for sustainable. So, it should give the ah definitely the environmental
impact, they should should have protect the environment at the same time they should be
profitable and they should have the social equity and should be [acceptab/acceptables]
acceptable. So, now we will discuss with factors affecting
agricultural sustainability if you say; ah what are the factors that leads to sustainable
agriculture. So, you have 3 factors as a technological
point of view that say land and soil related problems; that means, the as you discussing
the soil degradations soil erosions deforestations and siltation of reserves . So, that is we
say. So, that makes the soil quality degrades soil
health degraded because soil health [shoul/should] should be protected soil fertility should
be enhanced should be maintain long term basis. So, that it can provide nutrients to the crops
as per the need to give the proper proper yield to have a better yield .
And second indicatorize irrigation related problems . So, that ah that leads to sustainability
means the rise in groundwater and water logging that is say sea water inclusion also that
makes the soil salinity and also there is a problem soil alkalizations then over exploitation
of groundwater . So, ah due to ah because now as due to climate change the apply to
water for the agricultural production is going to limited .
So, it should use the water very efficiently and economicals economically and third one
this is indiscriminate use of agro chemicals that causes pollutions that is environmental
pollutions either use to fertilizers and pesticides and the greenhouse effect because of the agricultural
activity the intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides .
So, there is a greenhouse gas emissions high CO 2 content or they can say the ah tillage
operations if you go for the ah conventional tillage more opening of this has ah more carbon
dioxide emission to atmospheres. So, that causes greenhouse effect and the
global warming and the agriculture also [con/contribute] contribute to the ah global warming due to
this ah the ah activities as a conventional farming .
Then you what are the factors determining the sustainability if see considering the
population pressure and availability of arable land the world is classified under four categories
the class one region having low population pressure and abundant per capita arable land
that is a North America and Oceania and the class 2 regions having low population pressure,
but shortage of per capita arable land; that is Europe; class 3 regions having high population
pressure and high per capita arable land that is a Africa and Aouth America and fourth ones
where these South Asian ah continents where do belong regions having high population pressure,
but low per capita arable land . So, you look for the sustainable agricultural
production for the four regions the approaches towards sustainability may not be same for
all cases the approach for class one having the low population pressure, but high per
capita arable land and see a class four having high population pressure, but low per capita
arable land, they are different we can have a same approach for class one and class four
in order to have a sustainable agricultural production .
So, how sustainable agriculture how can achieve because there is a big, but a question before
us how can the world adequately feed more than 9 billion people by 2050 in a manner
that advances economic development and reduce are the pressure on the environment . So,
we want the economic development should go on, we should have the progress through economic
development at the same time, we want to protect the environments .
So, there is a big question how to achieve this how to increase the production to meet
the demand of the growing populations in a sustainable environments without degrading
environments . So, that is a questions before us . So, answering it requires a great balancing
act of the 3 needs which must be made simultaneously .
So, what are these the first act is the world needs to close the yield gap or the production
gap between the food available today and that needed by 2050 . So, if we want to meet the
nine billion populations by 2050. So, we must see what is what is the gap of
food productions what is a available today and what is needed by 2050 and how we can
close the gap and second the world needs agriculture to contribute to inclusive economic and social
development agriculture because contribution agriculture to economic development and social
development is a must. And third one the world needs to reduce agricultural
impact on the environment; that means, the 3 the the balancing act in a you know. So, in order to have a sustainable agricultural
production; that means, to feed the growing populations by 2050 you can say nine billion
population 2050 and in a sustainable ah agricultural production sustainable way. So, this 3 approach that should be parallely
go go ahead; that means, we have to increase the productions in order to meet the growing
demand of the ever increasing populations at the same time. So, agriculture should grow ; that means,
more production you should contribute to economic development this should give employment generations
and economic and the social development at the same time, we will say that, no, it should
not harm the environments, it should protect the environments; that means, we need to increase
productions in a sustainable environments. So, if we give some case studies of sustainable
agricultures ah there is a as Rodale institute so, that in US; so, as per the ah the project
that ah the planets ah 3.5 billion the arrival area the tillable acres could sequester nearly
forty percent of current carbon dioxide [emiss/emission] emission if they were converted to organic
agricultural practice . So, ah; that means, as as you saying if you go for organic farming
and the proper tillage operations proper ah input managements then the the carbon it needs
a increasing carbon dioxide sequestrations .
So, the carbon dioxide release from the agricul[tural]- practices should be minimized by this organic
farming approach a case study from the Rodale institute and the rothamsted experimentations
they have reported that ah use of ah fym farm a manure that greatly increased ah yields
of all crops, but responses were less when fertilizers ah were also given because if
you if you apply the chemical fertilizers and the organic togethers. So, we may not get a good response of the
organics with chemical fertilizers that is for reason .
And the same ah sites rothamsted a long term ah experiment the option that organic fertilizer
applica[tions]- have been reported a number of cases to cause increase in water stable
aggregations porosity infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity and decrease in
bulk density of soil . So, due to organic farming there is a water stable aggregates
means that if there is more water the the better aggregates of soils increasing water
stool aggregates that increases the water holding capacity of the soil and infiltration
capacity of water means the storage capacity of water hydraulic conductivity and decrease
bulk density means which of organic ah fertilizer organic manures say porous materials. So, that decreases bulk density soil becomes
porous and it facilitate better root growth better nutrient release fertilizer soils and. So, also the better uptake of nutrients efficiency
of nutrient class will be better in case of the ah organic input management by changing
the soil physical ah physical properties . And in India, to see [sa/some] some strategy,
they have shown ah that organic farming shows increase in carbon absorptions by up to ah
ah 55 percent and water holding capacity of soil by 10 percent as ah. So, there are also several research can say
because with using organic fertilizers or the organic manures ah it ah it changes the
soil rises peers because it increases the microbial populations, it increases the root
growth of the soils better root ah root ramifications and as the rises where environment changes
and ah neutron release of the soils and that makes the ah the soil activity the porous
that increases the ah water holding capacity because organic materials have the very low
burden density of course, and if we are adding to soils and that makes some changes chemical
and the physical changes in the soil structures ah soil properties and that increases that
only capacity so; that means, if you are using organic you can minimize the water requirement
are the water application to crops can be minimized ah through organic farming .
And increase for the other research of the Pillai; 1994 ah reported that increased fertilizer
consumption does not necessarily lead to higher productivity impulses because they say ah
the pulses are the ah they are less responsive to nitrogen fertilizer applications ah they
are somehow responsive to prosperity fertilizers. So, ah like the pulse crops high application
of the chemical fertilizer he may not get the more response the yield response may not
be high the fertilizer inputs. So, that is I discussing were little discuss
also when you go for the conversions are the two organic farms. So, the initial years the beginning years
we need to go for the crops they they are the less neutron demanding like less neutron
demanding like pulse crops are better [suit/suited] suited if we go for the initial the beginning
year of organic farming . So, the another research reported ah ah from
this [appli/application] application of vermicompost increased ah ascorbic acid beta carotene total
soluble solids and color value of tomato as compared to chemical fertilizer product. So, this is from our finding. So, one of my research class ah ah from through
his PhD research . So, if we are applying vermicompost increase of sweet crones and
the tomato ah cropping systems. So, use of vermicompost ah ah the yield is
as good are the chemical fertilizer you are you are using the vermicompost to lead the
the nitrogen fertilizer ah demand of the crops as in chemical fertilizer. So, you are applying the high quantity of
vermicompost . So, in that case; so, ; so, though yield is maintained at the same time
we see the better quality of the produce as the tomato. So, there is a increase in ascorbic acids
that is a antioxidants contains and also beta carotenes total soluble solids and color value
of tomato is higher in case of the ah vermicompost treated plots as compared to chemical chemical
fertilizer ah products . And the other research ah see ah the protein
vitamins and minerals are appreciable greater in organically produced crops ah as reported
by Srivastava et al 1982 and ah one more research from our group ah that is a split application
of organic fertilizer in rice achieved synchrony of soil n supply with crop n demand thereby,
I improved the grain productions which was ah comparable with the chemical fertilizer. So, you know ah ah as I discussing some crops
are less responsive to organic input managements. So, rice is one of the examples as say because
no these are the serial crops as you say none ah this is a determinant crops; that means,
they are the growth phases are very sequence very specific, if we want to increase the
productions ah ah get a higher production from rice crop. So, nutrient management was very specific
far most usually apply the urea fertilizer as you say nitrogen fertilizers at particular
growth stages, we do not apply all nitrogen at at the very beginning at the basal. The split applications to meet the specific
requirement are the specific growth stages of the crops we apply at the time of showing
at the planting of the crops and also we applied at the critical stages like pillaring stage
ah and the panicle incision stage and some cases also sometimes you go on application
ah flowering stage ah. So, in this case ah in for that regions the
the rice crop is highly responsive to n fertilizer because ah . So, as you are applying the nutrients
ah are specific growth stages. So, specific growth [cro/components] components
are promoted are specific growth stages, if you apply nutrient of the pillaring there
is more clear formations that is one of the components for the higher yield if you apply
are the panicle incisions that that increases more number of grain formations and ah. So, that is why say gets higher yield in case
of the what we did whether we can attain or maintain same yield as of chemical farming
through organic farming we did split application of organic fertilizers. we applied a basal fifty percent and rest
50 percent. So, during panicle incisions; so, through
that ah applications, what you see as compared to one time applications or two time applications
of same those of organic fertilizers that has a better output as compared to one time. So, this is ah one of the that also published
one of the ah field crop is general ah ah that also you have seen in case of the rice
there is a improvement in the ah quality the nutrient value also higher in case of the
organic fertilizer as compared to chemical fertilizer .
And the nutritional quality with respect to micro nutrients that is iron manganese zinc
and protein content in rice grain and cooking quality in terms of amylose content can be
improved by organic nutrient management as compared to inorganic fertilizers. So, this is a research from the ah Keawpeng
and the Meenune 2012. So, other researchers; they have also reported
with organic farming . So, there is a better micro nutrients content rice ah and also . So,
cooking quality is higher amylose contents can be improved in organic nutrient management
as compared to inorganic fertilizer. So, ah what you say if go for the sustainable
agricultures as we are we are looking for the productions we want to attain productions
as of chemical fertilizer or we want to improve the productions as per the demand and at the
same times we have we want to have a better quality the crop [shou/should] should be free
from are the produced may be free from insecticides pesticides it should have higher secondary
metabolites quality products like your ascorbic acids poly phenols and many carotenes are
there. So, should be reach in ah secondary metabolites
at the same time we want to we want to say that it should protect the environments, it
should not harm the environments; that means, the agricultural practice that leading to
higher productions that leading to better quality of the produce should not harm the
environment at the same time you will see that the minimum damage or no damage to environments;
that means, no emission of or less emission of greenhouse gases we can say no emissions
quarreling the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere at the same times higher sequestration of
carbon dioxide in the soils building the soil fertility for the land from basis. So, that is what you say [sustaina/sustainable]
sustainable [agricul/agriculture] agricultures. So, ah so, ah so, this is a great challenge
as you discussed challenge for us how we can meet the food demand of the future; that means,
the increasing food demands with a better quality food in a sustainable environments
ok. Thank you very much.

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