Dear viewers, we have studied the bad effects
of chemical farming, principles of organic farming, methods of supplying nutrients, composting,
vermi compost, Panchagavya etc. in the first part of this film. In this second part let
us study non-chemical methods for pest and disease control, organic certification, marketing
etc. All creatures on this earth have the right
and ability to live and survive. Hence we need not and cannot eradicate any pest, pathogen
or weed. It is enough if it is kept under control to avoid economic damage to our crops.
We have to follow non-chemical integrated farm management system for this purpose. There
are many useful insects and organisms in the nature. There will be one or the other natural
enemy for all creatures. This brings the balance in the eco system. But the interference of
man disturbed this balance. Indiscriminate use of pesticides killed the predators like
spider, frog, snake and bird. This led to the sudden multiplication of some unknown
pests and has gone out of control. Coconut mite, sugarcane wooly aphid etc. are the best
examples for this. If you stop spraying pesticides and minimize our interference, the situation
will recover soon. According to our national standards for organic
production or NSOP we should not use any synthetic insecticide, fungicide or herbicide. Instead
of that, we are advised to use substances of plant, animal and microbial origin. We
can use plastic mulch, insect nets, polyethylene and polypropylene based materials in protected
cultivation in green houses. But we have to collect and clean these materials from the
garden after the harvest of the crop. Off course it should not be burnt.
NSOP suggests destroying the original source of pests and diseases as a preventive measure.
We can use insect barriers, solar energy, heat, UV rays, nets and plant-based substances
from neem, garlic, Pongamia etc. as control measure. One may use mechanical and biological
methods in addition. But radiation is not allowed. Restricted use of neem oil and other
neem products, pyrethrin extracted from chrysanthemum plant, predators and parasites, vinegar etc.
is allowed. We can use silt, sodium bi-carbonate, NPV, soft soap, homeopathic and ayurvedic
products, biodynamic preparations, mulch, traps etc. without any restrictions. Further,
limited use of calcium chloride, sodium carbonate, copper oxy-chloride, copper sulfate, copper
hydroxide, potassium permanganate and Sulphur is allowed. But volume of any of these chemicals
should not cross 8 kilograms per hector per year. Use of ethyl alcohol and tobacco is
not permitted. Let us go through some non-chemical methods
of weed control first. Like any other plant weed also prepares food for itself. Hence
it adds humus to the soil if it is incorporated in the soil. Weed plays an important role
in soil and water conservation. �Touch me not�, Cassia and many leguminous weeds have
root nodules with nitrogen storage to enrich soil fertility. Chopping of the weed is popular
in recent years instead of uprooting. Weed cutting machines are popular for this purpose.
If the space is less between crop rows to operate brush cutters, we may use small rotary
tillers for inter-cultivation. Cover crops or mulching is helpful in gardens for weed
control. In wide open field irrigate once before sowing. Plough the land after the germination
of weed seeds. This farmer uses simple equipment for paddy weeding. Small cage wheel is attached
to the brush cutter itself for the purpose. Apart from weeding this operation helps for
better tillering. Flood irrigation encourages weed growth in gardens. But the drip irrigation
minimizes the weed growth. Panama wilt of banana spreads with flood irrigation water.
But drip irrigation checks this problem. It is advised to grow crops and varieties
adapted to the local conditions. Hybrids can give higher yield under favorable conditions.
But it fails with adverse climatic situations. Farmer has to spend every time to purchase
hybrid seeds. Generally commercial hybrids have less resistance against pest and diseases.
Hence the spending on fertilizers and pesticides is more. But the local varieties are available
with the farmers with less cost. Use of these varieties enriches crop and varietal diversity.
Varieties respond well to organic farming and can face adverse climatic conditions.
Pest and disease problem is also less. There are varieties with resistance or tolerance
against specific disease or insect. For example we have tomato variety resistant to bacterial
wilt. Growing this type of resistant variety will avoid the possibility of the Growing
resistant varieties bring down the necessity of medicines. Planting time is also important.
Incidence and extent of damage depends on the season and climatic condition. Many times
we can minimize the loss due to pest and disease by adjusting sowing or planting time. Crop
rotation is also an important practice. Repeated growing of any crop will lead to build up
of pest and disease and deficiency of micronutrients. Crop rotation with different types of crops
will minimize these problems. This improves the health and sturdiness of the crop minimizing
pest and disease problem. Leguminous crops in the crop rotation cycle enrich soil fertility
benefiting the mono-cot crop of the next season. Intercropping and mixed cropping systems are
also useful to bring down pest and disease problem.
Most of the insects pupate in the soil after the harvest of crop. Adults emerge by next
cropping season. Hence summer ploughing exposes the pupa to direct sun and predators. Even
the pathogens get destroyed by direct hot sun. Thus summer ploughing helps a lot for
pest and disease control. Solaraization is another effective method
of pest and disease management. Cover the seedbed or planting site tightly with transparent
plastic sheet for 8 weeks. It is most effective in hot summer if the soil has enough moisture.
Heat collected beneath the poly sheet destroys root knot nematodes, soil borne pathogenic
fungi, insects and weeds. In this areca garden bunches are covered with poly cover to avoid
�Kole roga� of areca nut. This is a popular and effective method in heavy rainfall areas.
Preventing pest and disease is our priority in organic farming. Follow recommended spacing
for crops and varieties. Light penetration and free movement of air between rows and
plants of crop will keep the pests away. This is the reason for healthy growth of paddy
in SRI method. Uproot excess plants after germination to maintain optimum plant population.
This allows remaining plants to grow healthy and sturdy. Vegetables like tomato, bitter
gourd, ridge gourd etc. are tied upright with thread. This avoids the contact of leaves
and fruits with the soil minimizing soil born infection.
Mulching is given importance in organic farming. It is helpful for soil and water conservation.
It is also useful for pest and disease management. Mulching avoids splashing of pathogens with
rainwater from soil to the upper portion of plants. This is followed in black pepper for
the control of wilt disease. Silver colored shining plastic mulch repels aphids by reflection
of light. This method minimizes the spreading of mosaic disease of watermelon and wilt disease
of tomato and chili. Preventing the entry of vector insects avoids many diseases in
vegetable nurseries. Nylon nets are used for this purpose.
It is possible to pick and kill larvae and other insects in kitchen gardens. Kill the
pest by putting it in kerosene in a poly bag. Sticky trap is one of the methods of integrated
pest management. Paint metal plate or tin with yellow colour and apply grease or castor
oil on it. Put this yellow sticky trap in the field. White flies and aphids of brinjal,
tomato and cotton are attracted to this trap. Insects get trapped on the sticky surface
and die. Likewise violet colour attracts thrips and lice. Clean the trap once in 2 � 3 days
and apply the sticky substance again. Adult insect get attracted to the lamp in dark hours.
Glow an incandescent bulb in the field from 6 to 9 pm. Fill water in an earthen vessel
with wide mouth and put a little bit of kerosene. Keep vessel below the bulb. Insect attracted
to the bulb die by falling in to water. Switch off the light by 9 pm. Otherwise some useful
insects will also die. Paddy case worm is common if the transplanting
is delayed. In western Ghat region there is a traditional method for the control of this
case worm. Twig of Mukkadaka or Gnidia glauca plant which has insecticidal property is swinged
like this to open the case of the worm. Stop water flowing in and flowing out before this
work. Case worms fall down. Put a little amount of kerosene to a gunny bag and keep it in
the water outlet. Then leave the stagnant water. Case worms moving with the flowing
water die due to kerosene. Some farmers use the twigs with sharp thorns or coconut leaf
broom instead of Gnidia glauca plant. There is a traditional method for the control of
ear head bugs of paddy. Burning bundle of wooden sticks is swinged just above the crop
by 7 to 8 pm. The bugs fly in the dark and die due to burning of wings.
Another method of insect control is the use of pheromone trap. Pheromones are the biological
substances released by female insect to attract male. Pheromones are specific to each species
of insects. These are artificially produced in the lab and supplied as lures. Traps fitted
with lure are placed like this at 2 to 3 feet height above the crop. 5 pheromone traps are
enough for 1 acre. Male insects get attracted, trapped in the poly bag and die. This reduces
the chance of mating and multiplication cut to that extent. Originally the pheromone trap
is the system of vigilance on the pest population. Pheromone traps are popular for the control
of helicorpa and spodoptera insects in cotton, sunflower and tomato, and stem borer and fruit
borer in brinjal etc. It is commercially used for the control of fruit flies in mango and
other fruit crops also. Repelling the pest is also a method of crop
protection. Put 1 part of neem cake and 3 parts of water in an earthen pot. Cover the
mouth with cloth and ferment it for 3 days. Keep 1 pot in each corner of the field. Open
the pot and stir well by evening. Bad smell of fermented neem cake will keep the insects
away. Cow urine and Panchagavya are also the good repellents of insects. In one more method
neem cake is tied in a gunny bag and kept immersed in the water inlet of the farm. Content
of neem cake gets dissolved in the water. This protects the roots and tillers of the
plant from pest and diseases. Bird perches are seen in some fields. Otherwise
maize or okra plants are grown here and there. Birds sit on these perches and predate on
the insects. 20 bird perches per acre can give considerable control of insect pests.
However bird damage is a major problem in some crops. Here shining ribbons are tied
to protect the seeds sown from the birds. This ribbon tied to sorghum ear head is also
for the same purpose. Birds damage the pomegranate fruits in this garden. Cellular tapes are
tied across to threaten the birds. Let us study the trap crop concept now. We
find marigold plant rows around this cotton field. Moths of cotton bole worm are attracted
to these flowers and lay eggs. Marigold flowers are plucked once in 2 � 3 days and destroyed.
Likewise okra and red gram are also used as trap crops in cotton. Marigold is helpful
even in tomato. Apart from these root exudates of marigold controls soil nematodes. Hence
crop rotation with marigold in nematode affected field can control nematode effectively. Castor
is the trap crop for spodoptera cut worms. Mustered plant is effective for diamond back
moth of cabbage. Putting 2 � 3 rows of sorghum around chili crop acts as physical barrier
for the entry of the vector insect � aphid. 2 rows of red gram and castor around the vegetable
crop control most of the larvae. Biological control of pest and disease is
the method of priority in organic farming. Use of parasitoids is one of them. Trichograma
insect belonging to the group of wasps is the popular one. This attacks the eggs of
most of the insects. Trichograma female injects its egg in to the eggs of other insects. The
larva eats all the content of the host egg. Trichograma is effective on stem borers of
paddy and sugarcane and cotton bole worm. Trichograma eggs are produced in the lab.
Egg card is stapled to the crop at the rate of 40,000 eggs per acre. Many species of wasps
and few species of flies are useful as parasitoids. These insects develop on or inside the body
of the other insects and kill the host. Use of predator insects is another important
method of biological pest control. Natural enemy of the pest insect is identified first.
Then it is developed in the lab and released in the crop. Few years ago wooly aphid became
a major pest on sugarcane. Micromas insect was used as predator. Eggs of this insect
was produced in the lab on large scale and distributed to the farmers. Likewise, lady
bird beetles are the well-known predators in the nature. These attractive tiny beetles
predate on aphids and scale insects. Green lacewing bugs are also useful predators. Adult
lacewing bug lays eggs in groups on leaves and other parts of the plant. Larvae emerging
out of these eggs feed on the eggs and larvae of other insects. 1000 eggs of green lacewing
bug are sufficient for one acre. It predates on mites, white fly, lice, American bole worm
of cotton etc. Snakes, frogs, spiders and dragon fly etc. are the efficient predators
in the nature. If we stop spraying pesticides and allow them to survive they will do their
work effectively. Many species of microorganisms are used for
biological control of pests and diseases. NPV is popular for the control of American
bole worm of cotton and armyworm. This virus solution is mixed in water and sprayed in
evening hours. NPV enters the body of the pest larvae with the food. Affected larvae
die within 2 to 5 days by drooping down their head. NPV spreads to the whole crop from these
dead larvae. 250 ml of 100 LE NPV is mixed with 250 grams of jaggary and 100 ml of soft
soap. This is sufficient for spraying 1-acre crop. It is recommended to use manual sprayers
for this purpose. Bacillus thurengenisis or BT bacteria is very
popular for biological pest control. This enters the body of the pest insect through
digestive tract and produces poisonous protein. BT is effective for the control of butterflies,
moths, beetles and flies. There are some pathogenic fungi of pest insects. Beauveria bassiana
fungus works against white fly, thrips, aphids and weevils. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus fungus
controls white fly, aphid and thrips. Metarhizium fungus kills beetles, bugs, spider mites etc.
Certain fungi are useful for the control of diseases also. Trichoderma horzianum is the
important one. It inhibits the growth of pathogenic fungi by producing antibiotics, competitive
growth and by suppression. Trichoderma is commercially used against Botraitis rot, Fusarium
wilt and Phytophthora diseases. Trichoderma cultured in lab is mixed with organic manure
and applied around the base of the plant. It is necessary to maintain enough organic
matter and moisture for further multiplication of Trichoderma in the garden. Do not apply
any fertilizer after applying Trichoderma. Likewise Pseudomonas fungus is also popular
for biological control of many diseases. Let us study the methods of seed treatment
in organic farming now. Milk is useful for this purpose. Mix 75 ml of milk with 425 ml
of water. Keep the seeds to be treated in a cloth like this and soak it in the solution
for 6 hours. Then drain, dry under shade and use it for sowing. This treatment helps for
better germination and for the control of seed born diseases. In one more method, mix
500 ml of cow urine in 2.5 liters of water. Soak the seeds for half an hour, drain, dry
under shade and use it for sowing. This avoids seed born fungal and bacterial diseases. In
another method of seed treatment, mix 500 grams of sweet flag root powder in 2.5 liters
of water. Soak the seeds in this solution for half an hour. Drain the seeds, dry under
shade and use it for sowing. In one more method, mix 250 grams of Pseudomonas culture with
1 liter of jaggary solution. Spread germinated paddy seeds sufficient for 1 acre on the floor
and smear the solution. Mix gently and use it for sowing. Trichoderma may be used instead
of Pseudomonas. All these methods are effective for the control of seed born diseases.
Let us study some biological methods for the control of some bacterial and fungal diseases
of crops. Ferment the cow urine for 1 week in an earthen pot. Mix 50 to 100 ml of this
in 1 liter of water and spray. In another method, mix 1 liter of cow urine and 1 liter
of fermented butter milk with 8 liters of water and use it for spraying. Otherwise mix
300 ml of sweet flag root extract and 1 liter of cow urine in 8.7 liters of water and use
it for spraying. To prepare sweet flag extract soak 400 grams of sweet flag root powder in
2 liters of water and keep it for 3 hours. Then filter it for the extract. Add one liter
of cow urine with 10 liters of water and spray the solution to any crop. This acts as a source
of micronutrient and pest repellent. It can control some diseases also.
We can use some plant extracts for biological control of pests and diseases. First one is
the neem seed extract. 3 kilograms of fresh neem seed or 5 kilograms of old neem seed
is enough for 1 acre. Pound the seed finely and soak it in earthen pot in 10 liters of
water. Cover the mouth with cloth and keep it for 3 days. Neem seed extract is ready
after filtering this mixture. Azadirachtin content is less in very fresh and very old
seeds. Put 50 ml of neem seed extract in 1 liter of water if the pest population is less
and 100 ml extract if the infestation is severe. 60 to 70 liters of this solution is enough
for 1 acre. Add 10 ml of soft soap solution for 1 liter of the spray solution. Detergent
is not present in this soap. Crush the soap and soak it in water for 1 day to get the
soap solution. The second one is neem leaf extract. 5 kilograms
of neem seed is enough for 1 acre. Crush the leaves and tie it loosely in a cloth. Soak
it in 10 liters of water overnight. Then filter it for neem leaf extract. Put 50 to 100 ml
of this extract in 1 liter of water depending on the pest population. Add 10 ml of this
solution for 1 liter of spray solution and spray. 60 to 70 liters of solution is enough
for 1 acre. Now let us prepare neem cake extract. 5 kilograms
of neem cake is enough for 1 acre. Pound the neem cake and tie it in cotton cloth. Soak
it in 10 liters of water for 3 days. It will give 7 to 8 liters of extract after squeezing
the bag of the cake. Put 50 to 100 ml of this extract in 1 liter of water. Spray it with
10 ml of soap solution. Soil application of neem leaves, seeds and cake is also a popular
practice. This controls soil nematode, termite and soil born diseases. These are the good
organic manures also. Use of neem oil is also common in organic
farming. 1200 to 1800 ml of neem oil is sufficient for spraying one acre of crop. Add 20 to 30
ml of neem oil and 10 ml of soap solution for 1 liter of water. Stir it well and spray
immediately. Neem oil gets separated from water and floats on the top after sometime.
It is better to use power sprayers for spraying neem oil solution. Neem oil gives good result
before 1 year. Ginger-Garlic and Chili extract: For spraying
1-acre half kilogram of fresh Ginger, 1 kilogram of garlic and half kilogram of green chili
is enough. Crush all these to make it a paste. Mix it in 7 liters of water and filter. Use
this extract at the rate of 50 to 100 ml per liter of water and add 10 ml of soap solution.
Spraying fresh solution gives better result. It may be kept maximum for 3 days.
Jatropa leaf extract: 5 kilograms of leaves is enough for 1 acre. Crush the leaves and
keep it in a pot with 10 liters of water for 1 week. Stir the mixture once in a day and
cover the mouth with cloth. Filter this and spray the extract at the rate of 50 ml per
liter of water. In another method put 1 kilogram of cow dung in 10 liters of water and mix
thoroughly. Filter it through a mesh and use it for spraying. This is useful for the control
of insect pests. Five leaves extract: Here the plants with
latex like Giant milk weed, Cactus or Jatropa, bitter plants like neem, creat, geloe or Dronapushpi,
plants not browsed by animals like malbar nut, plants with good smell like five leaved
chaste tree, holy basil or papaya and plants not affected by pest and diseases like morinda
or railway creeper are used for this extract preparation. Take 1-kilogram leaves of any
one plant from each group. Crush the leaves, add 2 parts of water and keep it in a pot.
Add 1 liter of cow urine and 100 grams of Asafetida. Cover the mouth of the pot tightly.
Stir the mixture once in a day and keep it for 1 week. Spraying this solution will control
the pests and diseases. 50 ml of this extract is sufficient for 1 liter of water. This extract
may be kept up to 30 days. Asafetida in this extract prevents flower drop.
Now let us prepare boiled extract of herbs. Collect the whole plant without root for this
purpose. Cut it in to small pieces. 2 kilograms of plant is enough for 1 acre. Add 8 liters
of water for 2 kilograms of plant and boil it till the extract evaporates to 2 liters.
Mix 300 ml of this boiled extract with 9.6 liters of water and 100 ml of soap solution.
Spray this solution to the crop. This can be kept for sometime, but stir it once in
a day. Spraying this boiled extract with power sprayer is effective against hoppers, ear
head bug and white fly. Spraying in the morning before 10 O�clock gives better result. Boiled
extract of Creat plant is effective against all types of larvae. For aphids and other
sucking pests use Tough weed extract. Boiled extract of Malbar nut plant can control fungal
diseases. Let us prepare a broad spectrum pesticide.
Take 100 liters of cow urine, 3 kilograms of neem leaves or cake, 3 kilograms of papaya
leaves and 3 kilograms of pongamia leaves in a plastic barrel. Keep it under shade for
15 days. Use this extract at the rate of 5 to 10 ml or even more with 1 liter of water
and spray to any crop. This works against most of the pests and diseases.
There are many plants useful for biological pest and disease control.
Greater Yam or Diascorea alata: It has tubers below the soil surface. This plant is useful
for the control of aphids, lice, maggots etc. Black night shade or Solanum nigrum: It is
an annual plant. Use the whole plant with fruits for the control of aphids and lice.
Coriander: Leaves, seeds and oil of this plant is useful for the control of aphids.
Zinger: Rhizome is used against American bole worm, aphid, anthracnose of mango and beetles
of grams. Turmeric: Extract of the rhizome is useful
for the control of armyworm, aphid and for some diseases.
Lemon grass: Leaves, roots, seeds and oil of this perennial grass is useful. This lemon
grass extracts acts as repellent of pest and growth retardant. It is effective against
fruit fly, mite, mosquito and storage pests. Neem: Leaves, seeds, cake and oil are useful.
Neem preparations are effective against aphids, brown and green hoppers, diamond back moth,
root knot nematode, termite, stem borer and against most of the insects.
Onion: Extract of the tuber is effective against nematodes, beetles of grams, ticks and tobacco
mosaic virus. Garlic: Tuber, leaf, flower and oil is useful.
Extract of these works against aphids, armyworm, bacteria, Colorado beetle, mite, root knot
nematode and blast disease of paddy. Around 2500 plants in the nature are identified to
have insecticidal property. Here we mentioned only few popular herbs. You can try with the
plants of your locality. It is better to use different plants in next sprays.
Let us study the methods of control of storage pests now. Dip the gunny bag in neem seed
extract solution and dry before filling the grain. This will keep away the pests for 4
months. Mixing the dry leaves of neem, Pongamia or five leaved chaste tree with the grain
controls the storage pests. Even we may use the powder of these leaves.
Spread the leaves in a layer at the bottom. Pour 20 kilograms of seeds on it. Put another
layer of leaves. Fill the grain again. Repeat these layers till the bag is full. Spread
the leaves at the top and tie the bag. This method will avoid the storage pests for 1
year. Smoke method in the warehouse: Put ignited
charcoal in a metal pan and keep it in the warehouse. Put handful of green leaves of
neem or five leaved chaste tree on it. Close all the windows and door so that the smoke
accumulates in the entire room. Smoke the room for 1 hour. Moths and all other pest
insects will die. Then clean the room and keep it closed. Rats and mouse are the permanent
pests of any warehouse. A small mouse eats 1 kilogram of grain per year. Apart from this
it pollutes the grain with the excreta. Keep traps for the control of rats and mouse. Use
of poisons is not allowed even for this in organic farming.
Organic certification is necessary to sell the produce in national and international
markets under organic label. This certification is done only by companies approved at national
level. SKAL, ECOCERT, INDOCERT and few more companies are working in our country as organic
certifying agencies. Certification is done for organic crop produce, processing of organic
products, product from natural collection, organic farm inputs etc. Subsidiary activities
like animal husbandry, bee keeping etc. under organic practice are also being certified.
Conventional farms cannot be certified organic with immediate effect. Residues of chemicals
used earlier will remain for sometime. Normal time gap specified for certification is 3
year. This is called conversion period. Inspectors from the certification agency visit the farm
from time to time to verify whether all the norms of organic farming are followed. They
give all necessary information on requirements for certification and suggest necessary changes.
If the entire farm is not brought under organic farming farmer has to maintain safer distance
and clear separation between organic and inorganic divisions of the farm. In such cases all necessary
precautions should be taken to maintain organic and conventional produce separate at the time
of harvesting, processing and storage. In field crops for certification 2 years must
be over at the time of sowing after implementing organic methods. In plantation crops 3 years
should be completed before the harvest of first organic crop. Specific guidelines are
laid down for each crop, practice or product for organic certification. One can get such
details for their specific requirement from certification agencies.
One should follow organic certification guidelines even for processing and packing. PVC packing
materials are not permitted. It is advised to keep away the laminated and aluminum coated
packing materials. Organic certification agencies are controlled by APEDA of commerce ministry
of government of India. Cost of certification is bit high for an isolated individual farm.
Group certification of many farms together works out quite cheap. India Organic is the
brand given for organic products of our country. Let us study the organic practice in animal
husbandry now. Animals should have freedom to exercise their natural behavior. They should
have enough space for movement, clean air, water and sunlight. The animal should have
protection against excess light, heat, rain and wind. Enough space should be provided
for rest and the floor should have natural bedding material. Equipment used on the farm
must be safe for the animals. Poultry birds and rabbits should not be kept in cages. Farms
without sufficient land are not permitted. Animals living in groups or herd should not
be reared separately. Breeding should be by natural method. However artificial insemination
is allowed. But the technique of embryo transfer is not permitted. Species and breeds from
genetic engineering are not allowed in organic farming.
Food provided to the animals on an organic farm should be pure organic. Use of coloring
agents is not allowed. All artificial stimulants, preservatives, digestion promoters, urea,
oil cakes from solvent extraction etc. are not permitted. But vitamins and minerals from
natural sources are acceptable. We may use bacteria, fungi, enzymes and molasses for
fodder preservation. Priority should be given for ethno-veterinary practices and medicines,
homeopathy, Ayurveda and Yunani medicines for the treatment of health problems. Avoid
the chance of illness and cut down the use of medicines. However one can use conventional
medicines, but by considering double time of safety period. All vaccines specified by
the animal husbandry department are allowed. But the vaccines of biotechnology are not
permitted. Certification agency will consider all these points while certifying animal husbandry
units. Bee keeping in organic methods is also picking
up in recent years. Foraging area of these honey bees must be either natural forest or
the organic farm. Bee boxes should not be kept near the farms using chemicals. Avoid
artificial feeding of honey bees unless it is quite essential. Further the food provided
should be of organic product. Keep bee species adapted to the locality. Foundation wax sheet
tied to the frames must be from organic wax. Veterinary medicines are not allowed. One
must not use any restricted substance and chemicals for any purpose in organic bee keeping.
Demand for organic products is increasing in recent years. Organic farming is very popular
in Germany, France, Australia and America and in many other countries. It is picking
up slowly in India also. Consumers are getting awareness about the hazardous effects of agro-chemicals.
We find organic outlets here and there in big cities now. Organic products are fetching
better price. Farmers have also started organic farming on large scale. Organic produce needs
systematic marketing network now. Of course, this organic farming is not a new
practice for our farmers. Till 1965 chemical farming was not known in India. Even after
the popularity of green revolution many traditional and tribal farmers of western Ghat region
were following organic farming itself. They grow indigenous crops and varieties organically
even today. Farmer has to come out of the mindset of chemical farming now and follow
the practices that existed earlier to green revolution. This is the necessity of today�s
Indian agriculture. It is better to stop fighting against the nature. This can bring back the
balance in the eco system. This will lead to sustainable crop production also. Organic
farming can answer many problems like poor health, environmental pollution, farmers�
suicide, social stress etc. It is expected from the government to give priority and support
for organic farming instead of announcing loan and relief packages. Organic farming
can improve the profitability of farming. This will lead to the social stability of
rural India. Organic farming means living as a part of
nature. It is the farming method following the nature. There is no confrontation with
other creatures in the eco system. No intention to use all resources for ourselves by suppressing
other members of the nature. Hence this organic farming will continue for ever 12