San Francisco’s revolutionary compost program, explained.


This Technicality episode is brought to you
by Dashlane. Hey guys, I’m here, let’s get technical.
This green garbage bin is an “Organic Waste” bin, and it’s for everything from food scraps
to yard trimmings. Every resident of the San Francisco Bay Area is equipped with one of
these, but then where does all of that organic waste go? *music* This is South Valley Organics (a compost processing
plant in Gilroy, California), and, here, around 40,000 tons of organic waste from people all
over the Bay Area gets turned into compost. South Valley Organics actually used to be
a landfill, but around 10 years ago they covered it up, and, now, it turns organic waste into
compost. And South Valley Organics isn’t the only
place that does this. Up north, in Vacaville, California, Jepson Prairie Organics processes
around 100,000 tons of organic material from Bay Area residents, making it one of the largest
composting operations in the United States. These two composting facilities work together
to power San Francisco’s compost program, which is quite possibly one of the best city-wide
compost programs in the US. In the modern age, we’re incredibly disconnected
from our trash. Every night after dinner, I throw my food waste away in the garbage and
don’t even think twice about it, and, if I were of legal age to be a betting man, I’d
bet you’d do something similar too. Today, let’s change that disconnectedness
by taking a deep dive into the fascinating world of urban composting. To do this, I wanna
answer three questions: One. Why do we need city-wide compost programs?
Two. How do city-wide compost programs work? Three. What makes San Francisco’s compost
program so great? Part the first: why do we need city-wide compost
programs? The United States has a massive food waste
problem. About 40% of food in the US — or around 1,500 calories per person per day — goes
uneaten. That’s over 870 million Big Macs worth of food calories, which is over two
times as much as most other industrialized nations, and enough calories to feed the entirety
of Germany, Canada, and Australia combined. Breaking food loss down into more specific
categories: we waste around half of all fruits, vegetables, and seafood, 1/3 of all grains,
and 1/5 of all meat and dairy. Moreover, the amount of food we’ve been wasting has been
increasing; food waste today is 50% more than what it was in the 1970s. Ah but Alex, you might say, I read that study
once that said just 100 companies are responsible for over 70% of global CO2 emissions, so while
it is helpful that I take the train instead of drive and use my HydroFlask (registered
trademark) instead of plastic bottle, if we really want to curb climate change, we need
to have top-down action. And wouldn’t it be the same for food? I mean yeah, I don’t
finish my kale sometimes but (1) can you blame me and (2) that can’t be the real cause
of the problem; big food is up to their old, not-green habits. *laughs* Um, ok yeah, 61% of food waste occurs
in the home, so, if we, as consumers, worked to eliminate food waste, we’d make some
very considerable progress in solving this problem. And solving food waste would be a pretty impactful
thing to solve. 30% of our fertilizer, 31% of our cropland, 25% of our freshwater,
and 2% of our total energy goes into producing the food that we don’t even eat. That’s inconceivable.
Yeah, Princess Bride nice. Oh my god the graphics have a mind of their own. That’s food that ends up in landfills; a
matter of fact, there’s more food in landfills than any other thing we throw away, and, there,
it produces methane, a greenhouse gas that’s 28 to 36 times more potent than CO2. Some modern landfills have methods of capturing
methane and either destroying it or turning it into fuel, but that’s certainly not the
majority because landfills still account for over 14% of methane emissions in America in
2017, making them the third-largest source of man-made methane emissions in the US. All in all, the amount of global food loss
in 2009 alone was the cause behind 3,300–5,600 million metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions,
and even if you didn’t care about environmental impacts, food waste is bad for your wallet.
The average family of four in the US spends around $1,600 a year on food that goes in
the trash. Hmm. Ok so how can we solve this problem? Well, there’s two strategies we
can use. Firstly, you can mitigate your personal food
waste. I’m sure at one point your parents told you to “take only what you can eat,”
so follow that and tell others to as well. Secondly, you can try to mitigate the effect
of the (hopefully minimal) food waste you do have through composting. What is compost?
Quite simply, it’s decomposed organic matter which can be used as a fertilizer. But, Alex, you might be thinking, if I create
a compost pile, it’s not gonna help anything. Like, I know the EPA says composting leads
to higher crop yields, but it’s not like I’m going around, yielding crops all the
time, in need of compost to better the process. There’s nothing I can do with a ton of compost. Well, you’re right. Not everyone’s a farmer,
and not everyone needs compost. So for us to really harness the benefits of compost,
we’d need to implement city-wide programs to collect organic waste and turn it into
compost for farmers. But, is that even possible? Part the second: how do city-wide compost
programs work? There are two essential components to a successful
city-wide compost program: collection and processing. Collection actually begins far before any
garbage truck is deployed, because the biggest hurdle to jump is simply peopling not knowing
what can and can’t be composted. People are pretty terrible at this. Compost facilities
have found basically anything you can think mixed in with organic waste, from pencils
to computers. Indeed, the day I visited South Valley Organics, they just got in a new shipment
of organic waste, and in it was a plastic helmet and this brick. Listen, I’ve been
working on this video for months now and I have no idea who’d think it would be a good
idea to compost a brick. Perhaps unsurprisingly, food waste that comes
from schools tends to be especially filled with non-food-waste trash. If you yourself
are curious as to what can and cannot be composted, feel free to pause the video right now and
take a look at this chart. Processing is the next stage of the operation.
After all of the organic waste is collected, processing starts when composting plants take out all that stuff that can’t be composted. Then, the waste is grinded up using this industrial-sized
grinder, making it the ideal size for microorganisms to do their job and start decomposing. The
resulting product is placed into these massive, long piles called windrows. One thing that really surprised me is how
hot the compost gets; a matter of fact, you could even sometimes see steam coming from
the windrows, and that’s because their ideal operating temperature can get between 140
and 149°F or 60 and 65°C. Why is that? Well, 80% to 90% of all microorganisms found
in those compost piles are bacteria, and those bacteria can be divided into two groups: aerobic
and anaerobic. Anaerobic bacteria — or bacteria which do
not require oxygen — are lowkey kinda useless and give compost any of the bad smells you
might usually associate with it, but aerobic bacteria, or bacteria which require oxygen
levels of at least five percent, are the highest iq because they can consume basically anything
but love turning nitrogen into protein and carbon into energy. This process generates
a lot of heat. However, if the temperature gets hotter than
160ºF, it can hurt the aerobic bacteria, and, thus, the productivity of the decomposition,
so compost piles must be turned and exposed to air in order to cool ‘em down. Bonus
points: doing that exposes the pile to oxygen, which, as we all know aerobic bacteria needs
to operate. And temperature isn’t the only condition
that needs to be ideal; we also gotta make sure the pile has enough water so that it’s
MOIST but not sopping wet and the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the pile is somewhere
between 25:1 and 30:1. Woah; in learning about why compost gets so
hot, we also learned about how compost works. Huh; it’s almost like I planned that. Wow.
Cool. Sweet. Radical. Amazing. Awe– After between a couple weeks and a couple
months, the compost is done and ready to sell back to farmers in the area. *big exhale*
Wooah. Okay. So those are some pretty thicc logistics, but do they actually work everywhere?
Eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeh? New York City rolled out it’s composting
program in 2017. It’s currently voluntary, and the advertising around the program is
minimal, so they don’t have anywhere close to 100% participation. There’s certainly
the potential for that program to be profitable, but it made only $58,000 in 2017, compared
to the well over $15 million cost of the program itself. There are currently no plans to expand
the program. Huh. But, wait, check out this article: San Francisco sends less trash to
the landfill than any other major U.S. city. And it’s, in part, because the compost program
in San Francisco is thriving. So, we know it can be done, but how? Part the third: What
makes San Francisco’s compost program so great? This 27-page document is the San Francisco
Mandatory Recycling and Composting Ordinance. It was passed back in 2009, and it requires
all San Franciscans to sort their garbage into recyclables, organic waste, and classic
trash. This was completely unprecedented at the time because it was America’s first
mandatory composting law. Is this what makes San Francisco’s program so great? Yes and
no. Yes, because this is incredibly important, but no, because saying this ordinance alone
is responsible for SF’s composting success doesn’t take into account the nuance of
trash collection in the city. There are two reasons SF’s compost program is so great. This is the first is their exclusive partnership
with the waste management company Recology. While cities like New York have hundreds of
companies competing to collect waste from residents and businesses, San Francisco only
works with Recology, decreasing administrative friction, which, in turn, means it’s a lot
easier to try new things. Indeed, in the past, San Francisco and Recology
have ran many “pilot programs” (which are small scale tests of larger projects done
to see if those projects would be successful). And many of these pilot program turned out
really well. For example, in 1996, the curbside collection of food scraps was pilot tested,
and, it went so well that the project was rolled out to the whole city in 2001. Additionally, the genius of San Francisco’s
whole waste management system is that it’s structured so that Recology has strong financial
incentives to divert waste from landfills. Recology has a lot of stake in various recycling
and composting facilities around the Bay Area, but they don’t have stake in landfills,
so it’s to their benefit to move as much waste as possible to recycling and composting
plants. Ok, so what’s the second reason San Francisco’s
compost program is so great? Well, quite simply, the government wants it. Composting has the
full support of the San Francisco government. It all started in 1989, with, actually, the
state government. The California Assembly passed the Integrated Waste Management Act,
which set the goal of a diversion rate of 25% by 1995 and 50% by 2000. A diversion rate
is the measure of how much trash you’re diverting from landfills by recycling or composting
that trash. At the time, San Francisco’s diversion rate was 10%, which means it was
sending 90% of its trash to landfills. Over the next decade, San Francisco invested
cash money into making their waste management system as environmentally friendly as possible,
and, by 2000, they hit their goal of 50%. But San Francisco said “we can do even better,”
and, in 2002, SF’s Board of Supervisors passed the Zero Waste Goal, requiring San
Francisco to have a diversion rate of 75% by 2010 and 100% by 2020. That’s right:
San Francisco wants to send no trash to landfills. And they’re like kinda doing it. Thanks to all of these legislations, in 2007,
the city reached a diversion rate of 72%, while California, like the state as a whole,
was hovering at 52%. But San Francisco realized that, without people sorting recyclables,
compost, and trash in their homes, they wouldn’t be able to stay on target and reach their
goal of zero waste. And that’s where this comes in: the 2009 Mandatory Recycling and
Composting Ordinance. We’ve come full circle. Thanks to this thing, in 2018, the city hit
a diversion rate of 80%. That means over 1.5 million tons of garbage are diverted from
landfills every year. That’s insane. So, no, San Francisco doesn’t send no waste
to landfills, but they’ve gotten pretty darn close, at least, closer than any other
major US city, and that means they’re doing something right. What’s the future for compost in San Francisco?
Well, if everyone were to fully abide by this law and separate their trash, SF would be
able to achieve a diversion rate of 90%, so the city is continuing to work towards that
and find ways to get that last 10%. Luckily, the future looks bright because the residents
are on their side. Before this law was enacted, the city surveyed a bunch of apartment owners
and found that 85% of ‘em really liked the program, and, like, when was the last time
that many people agreed on anything political. Obviously, there is a lot we need to do to
fight climate change, and even that’s an understatement. But one factor we need to
look at is what we do with our food and what we do with our waste. And compost is the brilliant
solution to both of those things. HECC, the fact that you’ve made it this
far in a video about composting shows that you care about this and it’s a solution
worth fighting for. So, now that you know why we need city-wide compost
programs, how they work, and why San Francisco’s is so great, you can advocate for them where
you live and in the conversations you have. And, in doing so, we’ll make the world just
a little bit greener. You know, this past year, I’ve become even
more interested in fighting climate change because it really is an issue of international
security, and it’s not the only security threat that’s unique to the modern age.
For instance, between weak passwords and data breaches, there are tons of ways our online
security can be compromised. That’s where the password manager Dashlane
comes in. I downloaded Dashlane back in 2018 because I needed a password manager that works
on both Google Chrome (on my laptop) and on the apps on my iPhone. Dashlane works across
devices and platforms, so it was perfect. When I first downloaded Dashlane, I saw I
used the same password on 411 different online accounts. That’s almost laughably bad, because
if a hacker gets a hold to any one of those, they’ve got access to everything. Luckily, Dashlane has a feature which can
log into websites and change insecure passwords for you so they’re longer a security threat.
And that’s not the only amazing feature Dashlane has; between a built in VPN, auto-filling
long forms, and Dark Web Monitoring, Dashlane not only saves you time, but also keep you
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So go to dashlane.com/technicality to download Dashlane today. Plus, if you wanna upgrade
to the premium plan (which allows you to sync across devices and get access to a bunch of
other features), you can use the code “technicality” for 10% off. Wooo, this video is finally done! I’ve never spent this much time on a video.
I didn’t time track it or anything, but I’m guessing I spent between 60-70 hours
on this. I’m incredibly happy with how it turned out, and I hope you are too. Uh and
if you are, it’s super helpful if you share this video with someone, or click the like
button, or support me on Patreon. Big thanks to my Patreon supporters (especially those
on screen right now); they really help make this content possible. And if you too wanna
invest in not just Technicality but also me (as a person) please check out patreon.com/technicality.
Thank you. We just hit 50,000 subscribers, which is mind-blowing and incredible. Thank you! My next video will probably be a 50k subscriber
Q and A, so leave any questions in the comments below. Seriously, thank you for watching,
DFTBA, and explore on.

73 thoughts on “San Francisco’s revolutionary compost program, explained.

  1. I'm not dead! I’ve never spent this much time on a video; like I said, I’m guessing I spent between 60-70 hours on this. I’m incredibly happy with how it turned out, and I hope you are too.
    CUT FOR TIME:
    I’m reading Infinite Jest right now, so (inspired by David Foster Wallace) here are a ton of endnotes:

    {0:35} If you’re really curious about the difference in audience between South Valley Organics and Jepson Prairie Organics, most of the compost from the Bay Area (more specifically, areas like San Mateo County, Solano County, and, yes, San Francisco proper) goes to Jepson Prairie Organics, while South Valley Organics mainly deals with yard trimmings from South Bay Area residents (such as residents who live in San Martin, Morgan Hill, and Gilroy).

    {6:07} If 80% to 90% of all microorganisms found in those compost piles are bacteria, what makes up the other 10%-20%? Well, fungi like yeasts and molds, my personal favourite of which are actinomycetes, which are technically bacteria but operate like fungi and are responsible for that nice Earthy smell compost has.

    {6:27} It’s actually a bit more complicated than just “aerobic bacteria make the pile hot.” See, there are different types of aerobic bacteria that show up at different points in the composting process. Psychrophilic bacteria kick into action between 55°F and 70°F and produce enough heat so that mesophilic bacteria (which function between 70ºF and 100ºF) can thrive. Note that by the time mesophilic bacteria kick in, the temperature is so hot that the psychrophilic bacteria die off. Mesophilic bacteria are super efficient decomposers and also produce a fair amount of heat, so the whole process repeats when mesophilic bacteria heat up the pile enough for thermophilic bacteria (which function between 113ºF and 160ºF) to take over and mesophilic bacteria to die off.

    You can sorta think of this whole process as a relay race. One bacteria heats up the pile enough for another bacteria to take over and that first bacteria to die, and then that happens again until the pile reaches its ideal temperature of 140ºF, 149ºF.

    {7:14} There actually another step in the composting process: Before the compost can be sold to local farms, it has to be sent to a lab to be tested. While pathogens like salmonella and weed seeds die at the incredibly high temperatures compost operates at, it’s always possible for those things to slip through the cracks, so laboratories confirm that pile is good to go.

    {8:30} Here’s the history of Recology in San Francisco: In the late 19th and early 20th-century, trash collection in San Francisco was mainly done by a group of Italian immigrants known as scavengers who would go around in horse-drawn carriages and collect trash like wood, metals, glass, and organic waste to resell to other people.

    In 1921, the scavengers became organized into two associations: the Scavenger's Protective Association and Sunset Scavenger Company, and, in 1935, they decided to merge into a singular company that is, today, known as Recology, the company behind waste management in San Francisco and most of the surrounding Bay Area, as seen in this Recology logo on the organic waste bin I popped up from behind at the beginning of the episode.

    {11:20} Today, the city continues to work hard at getting their diversion rate higher. The San Francisco Department of the Environment literally has a team dedicated to raising awareness about San Francisco’s zero waste goals and giving $600,000 a year to local nonprofits making innovations in the waste management sector. 

    {11:26} Apartment owners were chosen to be surveyed because they tend to be the group of people who most oppose curbside compost programs when they’re implemented in cities. Thus, considering the curbside compost program had an 85% approval rate from a group of people who traditionally dislike curbside compost programs, the people must really like the idea.

    If you wanna know where I’ve been and what I’ve been up to, check out this post: https://www.patreon.com/posts/28548687
    If you enjoyed this video and want to help make more like it, please consider supporting me on Patreon: patreon.com/technicality.

    Thank you all so much. Y’all are amazing.

  2. Do you guys really just throw everything in landfills?

    Here in Europe I have always separated waste. Plastic, glass and paper get recycled, food waste gets composted and the rest either incinerated to make power or in landfills (mostly incinerated)

  3. Except for some major cities (that cut down on traffic, fuel usage and staff cost by only collecting one sort of garbage) all of Germany has composting and recycling… We burn most as "thermal use".

  4. Leave it to the graphics to start thinking on their own. I can’t get over the shiny hair. It looks like you have grey or silver streaks. Quickly turning into Tom Scott, got it.

  5. Great video, thanks for that and the Patreon update. Glad to hear you're focusing on the right things. Still can't believe you're only on 50k with all your great content.

  6. greetings from Germany – we love to recycle and separate our trash in at least 5 different bins for ages now 🙂

  7. Awesome video! I'm always glad to see a new video from you. Our local composting program is awesome as well. I benefit each Spring when I fill the back of pickup truck with fresh compost (costs about 10 bucks) and use it in my vegetable garden and in all of my plant beds. I don't always separate compostables, but when I complete larger landscape projects (about 2 to 3 times per year) I will take truck loads to the local landfill compost pile. The program seems to thrive. Amazing in a very very very conservative Utah community. Cheers.

  8. IMO the brick is better than the plastic things, because it'll react just like a bit of rock in there (although maybe not great for some processing machines…) Also, just to brag a little (:-p), Austria's got organic waste collection almost everywhere. There was even one guy, who mashed and distilled some organic waste…

  9. I've seen a lot of composting videos but yours was the most well-researched and approachable ones that I'm seriously looking into composting now. Keep up the great work, dude!

  10. I have a compost pile at my house to keep the cycle local, preventing the use of trucks when getting fertilizer for my garden.

  11. I had a chicken farm. We had a large compost pile. After slaughtering we would burry the feathers, blood and entrails. It was always gone in a week. And boy was it hot. 120-150 usually. I put a whole dead raccoon in and that disappeared shockingly fast.

  12. Whoa, this video is jam-packed with information! Great episode.
    Also, that sponsor transition is so smooth!

    Question for the Q&A: Why did you choose for this haircut, instead of the other one in most older videos? (I love both haircuts though :P)

  13. 61% of wasted food is thrown out at home? The fuck is wrong with people? In my family, you are lucky if something you have put in the fridge is still there the next time you open it.
    I can't even think of the last time something got thrown away, as everything gets eaten within days, or even hours.

  14. This was a great video. There aren't many channels with 50K subs that I would say are "criminally undersubscribed" but yours is definitely one such!

  15. amazing video nickel. very dense with info, while still being easy to follow! Also, hit me up when youre ready to have the best kale salad in your life.

  16. Part the first. Awesome video, you look older (no surprise there, just struck me).
    Part the second, as a British person its interesting how much more the UK and Europe recycle compared to the US, this seams like a relatively new thing over there but we have had 2 or 3 bins on regular collections for years. Compost, dry recycling and non recycling for incinerating in a power plant.
    Part the third, as a British person it hurts a little each time you say compost🤣 because you are speaking American English not British English🤣

  17. I love that San Francisco is doing this! I compost food at home (I have a garden, and I grow kale by choice).

  18. You had to come post this brilliant video that's admittedly full of garbage. Keep up the shrubbery good work, my dude

  19. Dude, a brick might not be compostable, but it's neutral. You can put rocks and soil in compost (because that's what compost is put in on the field) and that's basically unassembled bricks.

  20. I absolutely love ur videos and the effort is so so clear! I was wondering if you’ve done any research on how animal agricultural is related in climate change. I’d love to know ur opinion 🙂

  21. I keep finding that you're one of the few content creators who can actually make things interesting enough to grab (and keep) my attention. I'm sure I'm not alone here! You just pull the viewer in and they have no choice but to be awestruck as they are educated.
    Awesome video as always! The amount of effort definitely paid off in the quality of the video. It's always obvious that you love what you're doing.
    Rambling is complete now.

  22. As a San Franciscan (or at least Bay Area resident), you've convinced me to focus more in composting. Great video man, glad to see you're back!

    Q&A Question: How do you find time to work on your YouTube videos during the school year?

  23. Amazing video. I was genuinely excited when I saw that you uploaded and can’t believe how greatly researched this vid is. Also congrats on 50k. Great channel.

    Epic

  24. "Revolutionary" but Sweden has been doing this for ages. Pretty sure that includes most of western Europe. I recall seeing green organic waste bins when I was like 7… I'm 27 now.

  25. Congrats on 50K subscribers, Alex! Keep up the good work!

    By the way, you always seem to have a way in making anything interesting, how do you do that?

  26. Oh good you are alive, was starting to get concerned! Great video as always, really interesting topic and it is amazing to see how successful San Francisco has been at reducing waste.

  27. I have a question: did you notice your eyes were closed on the last frame of the video before you published it?

  28. The ACT, or at least the south of the ACT, has organic waste bins, but what's super dumb is food scraps don't count as organic waste

  29. In Germany we also sort recyclables, paper, organic and traditional trash nation wide. We also have recycling centers for pretty much every town where you can also sort even further with things like glass (sorted by color), tin cans, aluminum from foil and other sources and more. If you just buy a couple of buckets and collect these things seperatly you can be even more specific in your sorting.
    I LOVE this system, because it 1 is good for the environment, 2 is good for reusing deplete-able resources, 3 turns a profit and 4 I don't have to feel so guilty for towing things away (not to say that should make anyone throw away more stuff).

    Really great video btw. Nice

  30. what worries me is that is a monopoly of Recology, if it was manage by the Estate I would accept more the monopoly…

  31. I am really happy to see you back, Alex. A video from you is always a treat. I always love the comedy you sneak into your videos while still keeping them informative. Keep up the awesome work. <3

    For the Q&A: What do you find to be the most challenging part of making videos? What do you find to be the most exciting? Do you have any systems in place to make any challenging parts go smoother? If no, are there any systems that could help in that regard?

  32. There is a really interesting property of meal worms (I think, maybe it's super worms) where they can digest and break down styrofoam into something that can be composted. It has massive implications on the reduction of land fill use and it is possible that with gene editing it could break down other plastics.
    I think you would find that research rabbit hole really interesting.

  33. hey in the measurement of how much land and water is wasted, did you include all the land that is used to produce animal food for meat we don't eat? even though 30 percent is a lot it looks not enough in my opinion.

  34. Dear alex I am in love with you, simple , clever , clean cut , hair gel , beautiful green eyes with glowing red baff lips , and finally great ideas you are quite gifted person 🙀" awesome " 👌💘💘💘😉😚😚😚❤❤❤🕴🕴🕴😜😜😎😎😍😍😘😘🇬🇧🇬🇧🇬🇧🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬

  35. My city makes composting super easy, we are also aiming for a zero waste city. It's so normalized here that I panic when I go places without a compost bin. It feels wrong to throw most things in the garbage. It'd be great if the US could normalize it everywhere, so that throwing away pop cans and rotten tomatoes would feel equivalent to emptying your chamber pot out your window into the street.

  36. This was a great video Alex! Way to dive into the science, behavioral aspects, and economics of it all. Nicely done

  37. Ok, so based on your chart at 5:22 I went ahead and contacted my own local authority and found that there were additional things that I could have been throwing into my composting bin!
    Very good video. Well researched (as always) and well laid out. It's always good for me to learn something new.

  38. My cousin leaves at least one meal a day unfinished… It's so infuriating, especially because it gets stale/spoiled by the time I'm back from work and I can't finish it…

  39. First, I want to say how beautiful this video is. The way you present educational content like this is always amazing and I can tell how much work you put into this project in particular. It's also rather heartwarming for someone like me, to hear how much San Francisco is doing to fight climate change.

    Now for the jokey portion of my comment: You'd lose that bet against me; I was raised not to leave ANY food on my plate, and I've grown to be… less "environmentally conscious" and more "have serious anxiety from the very real possibilities from global environmental shifts." I try to do what I can, and what I can understand (my local recycling program, for instance, confusingly has different lists of what's acceptable recycling based on WHICH PAGE OF THE CITY'S WEBSITE YOU VISIT, and those differ from the recycling company's website list).

  40. There TECHNICALLY very little evidence to suggest methane has a GHG effect. According to our geological record, methane has been astronomically higher in the past, high enough that if these alarmist speculations were true, there'd be no life on Earth.

  41. i care so much for compost. great video good structure and explanation on point. You actually send me to watch the video in your "why i cut my hair Q&A"

  42. Great job, Alex! I'll do a bit of research myself online to answer a couple questions your posting left me: 1) By how much does composting reduce methane release (I suspect it's a bunch, but I'm a stickler for detail!), & 2) How does SF/Bay Area handle sewage sludge? There are lots of residual drugs & hormones & such in human waste that render it unfit for crop fertilizer. Great to Cyou back! 🙂

  43. Very informative video. I went to add:
    Animal agriculture is the second largest contributor to human-made greenhouse gas emissions after fossil fuels and is a leading cause of deforestation, water and air pollution and biodiversity loss.

  44. You missed one check out Recology Blossom valley orgánica north it’s another big composting operation dealing with San Francisco’s food waste.

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