Soil Stories – The Whole Story

For most of my life, I’ve given little thought to the soil. To me it was the flat surface that I
walked on. I’ve been thinking a lot more about it
these days and what I learned has surprised me. I learned that soil is like the earth’s skin that lies between the sky and it’s rock core. It’s where plants keep tenuous grip with their
roots, as they harvest the sun’s energy with their leaves. I begin to realize that soil is alive. That a handful of good soil contains
more living things than all the human beings that were ever born. It dawned on me that without soil life as we know it would not exist. If soil is alive I wondered if soil could die. I visited with Pam Thomas and spoke
to her about this. A recent historical example is the
Dust Bowl. In the early part of the 1900’s
homesteaders plowed millions of acres of prairie lands in order
to plant crops, mostly wheat, because wheat was bringing very high prices
during the World War one wheat boom. Well because of this intensive
cultivation uh… the delicate balance – the ecosystem-
was essentially destroyed – you know you had the plants, the animals and the
micro-organisms to the point of where the soil no
longer was able to function. So as the wet years of the twenties
gave away to the drought of the thirties, the soil, which no longer had the natural anchors to
keep the soil in place, became very susceptible to wind erosion. In fact in the nineteen thirties dust storms would start the great plains and
would move cross-country to places like Boston and DC…. Meanwhile in the southern US piedmont, plowing and monoculture crops destroyed
soil, causing massive gully erosion. Some of these gullies are still visible today. No wonder FDR said that “the nation that destroys its soil,
destroys itself.” These were dramatic examples of soil
destruction, and I got to thinking how we were doing
today. We’re still losing soil today. It’s not as obvious
to us today as it was in the Dust Bowl thirties but it’s an ongoing crisis because…. the bottom line is, we are
feeding more and more people on fewer and fewer acres. We’re literally losing ground. The nationalist Aldo Leopold warned us
that one of the dangers of living away from the land is that we are inclined to think
that our breakfast comes from the grocery store
…or a carton. This got me to wondering how much soil
we had to feed our planet. My soil scientist friend Jackie helped me
understand this. Imagine for a moment that the earth is this apple… seventy-five
percent of the earth is covered by water… Now half of the dry land on our planet is
too hot or too cold to produce food for humans. Of this amount, about half is too
rocky, steep or too shallow to produce food. It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to
figure that there’s not much left over. And then what we have left is under
pressure from things like urban sprawl and erosion. It takes five hundred years to form an inch of soil, something that can be destroyed in a few
minutes, and that worries me. Leonardo DaVinci said that we know more
about the movement of celestial bodies than about the soil underfoot… I’m guilty as charged but i’m not going to leave it that way. Join me in the rest of the series to find
out what soil really is and what it means to us… perhaps if we learned more about soil we’d
be better eqiupped to take care of the planet. If life is we know it depends on the
soil, it stands to reason that what happens
below the soil’s surface has a profound influenced on what happens above the
surface. My knowledge of soils needed to run
deeper. The people that could help me do this
were the soil scientists – their work is to look beneath the
surface into this life-giving, yet unseen world. Each day in the field is an adventure of
discovery for them – they have their own vocabulary and they
love the feel of dirt in their hands. this was the soils dream team,
and they would be my teachers for the next few weeks. Dennis is a veteran who has mapped over a
million acres of soils in his lifetime. Lance and Emory are also seasoned soil
explorers who have discovered a new soil series that bears their respective
names. This was going to be fun. the first thing they showed me was how
the soil was formed. This happens when weather and living plants
and animals breakdown loose rock, called parent material. Parent material is typically weathered
bedrock that over time becomes the main mineral component of the soil. It looks like rock when you dig it out,
but as you can see it’s very fragile massive structure, breaks easily. Dennis took me to a road cut to show me
that overtime, soil is formed in layers
called horizons. These horizons tell us about
their history and they can also give us clues about
their future. This is the A Horizon or the
surface layer. Look at all those roots in there. That’s wonderful. Dark colors caused by the organic matter
in there. In here we have what’s called the E
Horizon, capital E. Fairly light in color, more sandy in texture and down below it, is our B Horizon that contains much more clay and
you can see it’s much more red down here, too. Each soil horizon has unique properties like depth, color or clay content. When these horizons are layered on top
of each other over time, they form soil profiles which can be identified by name. they are often named for the place they
were first identified, like Norfolk or Durham. When it comes to looking below the
soil’s surface, nothing is as effective as a good old-fashioned soil auger. You’ll never find these guys in the
field without one- I guarantee it. Now I began to see how soil profiles
can tell their story, layer by layer. this is a soil profile put into a long tray so we can look at it
a little easier that pulling it out with the auger. In this hand here you’ll see this is the A Horizon and you’ll see it is much darker cause it
contains organic matter in here. This is the A Horizon or the surface layer.
This is eight or ten inches below the surface and see how red this is? All soils contain iron and we know if we put a piece of iron outside for two weeks it turns rusty. This is rusty soil. Rusty soil, how about that? So each color has a different meaning- bright reds and yellows mean that
a soil is well-drained there’s more oxygen in the soil to oxidize or rust the
iron in the soils. Grey colors on the other hand, mean the soil
is waterlogged for most of the year because there is less oxygen to get at
the iron. A dark brown color means more organic
matter which is mostly in the A Horizon or topsoil. we can use the Munsell Color book to classify
the exact color of the soil. We take the soil ped and put it behind the book and find the colorship that it most
resembles. I’m going to say that it’s that
color there 2.5 YR 4 8 2.5 YR 4 8 by the
way is a more precise way of saying “red”. Dennis also pointed out to me that
soil depth is another way to identify soils. This is the “Cecil series”
because the clay content extends below a thirty inch depth. If this clay content decreased above a
a thirty inch depth it’s called the “Pacolet series”. They’re kissing cousins. Whoa! kissing cousins? It turns out that if two soils have
similar color and clay content, but different depths, they’d be named differently. At this point I knew enough to see how
you could identify a specific soil series. I was now ready for Lance and Emory
to show me their newly discovered soil – it’s named the Brewback series. Right there, about 22 inches we just starting to barely nip on the
CR material. You can hear the grind and feel
it in the auger. Right here we have the A Horizon. It’s about six inches thick and it’s a fine,
sandy loam. Then we get into the B Horizon, which is
a heavy clay. And here, about twelve or fifteen inches,
we have the uh… the grey colors coming in, and for a Brewback soil we
have to have the grey colors within the top ten inches of the B Horzion. As we move on down the profile about
twenty inches, we get the sandy, clay loam, which is the B-C horizon, which is a transition
between the B Horizon and the parent material. By this time, I had seen a few soil series, each with its on color, depth, and
clay content – each with its own personality if you will.
It turns out that soil scientists have identified and mapped over nineteen
thousand different soil series in the country. That sounds like a huge effort – I had to find out who was doing the work and why it is so important. I found out that the massive effort of
identifying and mapping soils is known as the soil survey. The body of information resulting from
this ongoing effort, also known as the soil survey, is available in hard copy and online
at the web soil survey. It’s an inventory of soil maps, soil
properties, suitabilities and limitations. I was reminded that what happens beneath
the surface of the soil ultimately affects everything above its surface. Everything. That’s what makes the soil surveys so important to any land management
decision, from farming to disaster recovery planning. I drove out to Lee County to find
out who the people were behind all this work, and how soils were mapped. Charlie is a soil scientist who is
responsible for the upkeep of about eleven million acres of soil survey. Most of this…all of South Carolina has been mapped, so what we’re doing is updating all the older soil surveys. He offered to take us through the
process of making a soils map in the field, and I asked him to sketch out the day
for us. One of the things we do, when we go through the process of
making the soil map is to stand and just look at the area and take in the whole landscape itself.
and you can see out in this part of the world, that some areas of it are
concave, some of it are more convex. So essentially what we do is to stand out here and note where these
areas are, dig the holes, identify the soils, and label them on the map
using alpha-numeric symbols. The finished product looks
like this. This is the same area that
we’re standing in, and we can see that these soil lines
delineate the different tones on the map. The first hole we dug was on a
slight rise… we then moved over to a slightly lower area
only three hundred feet away and dug
another hole. Charlie showed me the difference between the two soils that
was so close to one another, and how land form influenced them. This soil in the front, is the “Rains Series”. This soil in the back is the
“Nolfork Series” that we looked at earlier. One of the first things we notice is that
the surface of the “Rains” is darker and that is reflected by the tones on
the map. The other obvious thing is that the subsoil
is much grayer. Where the “Norfolk” series is dominately brown,
the “Rains” is dominantly gray. The grayer colors immediately below the surface
means that this soil formed and still at times will have a water table at or near the soils surface. And although these soils are only 300
feet apart, the water table is a limiting factor on
land management here in the Coastal Plains. Part of the process of making a map is to ask the questions and then to go get the answers. And once we’ve identifed some
soils in the area, we begin to understand that the same soils more than likely will be occurring in that
area. It looked like Charlie asked and
answered a lot of questions – I don’t know how many miles he walked,
but he mapped 300 acres that day. Many of my conservationist friends tell me that a bad day in the field is
better than a good day in the office. I began to reflect on my new-found
appreciation for the work that Charlie and his colleagues do in the soil survey. My knowledge of the big picture was
taking shape, but I wanted to see the area we had mapped
in the Web Soil Survey for myself. Back at the office, I went to the Web
Soil survey and found the place we had mapped in Lee county. I drew my area of
interest boundary and went to the soils
map tab. All the familiar soils – Goldsboro,
Noboco, Norfolk and Rains appeared. I was in the right place. Charlie had told me that depth to the
water table was the limiting factor here, so I went to the soils data explorer
to look at the soils properties. Sure enough, the Goldsboro and Rains soil
had shallow water tables as we had seen
in the field. I then had a look at the soils suitabilities
and limitations for land use to see where the best place to, say, build a house would be. It turns out that if I were to do that, it is better on a Norfolk soil and
maybe on a Goldsboro – all of the other soils were going to be
too wet. I used the shopping cart feature,
which was free by the way, to get a custom soil survey report…. a little memento of my day in Lee county. What I had learned so far showed me the broad brush strokes of
soils in the landscape and how they affect so many of our above-
ground land management decisions. I now wanted to see the soil from a
different perspective. To get really upclose and personal
with soils, I visited with my good friend Richard
in his garden. We moved into our house about 1984, and we have always had the hopes of having a garden.
We’ve tried a whole different groups that things, We’ve always had
tomatoes and squash, diffferent kinds of squash, zuchinni, yellow squash, and uh… melons, cucumbers. That’s been the basis. Now we’ve gone from about half an inch of topsoil,
to about eight and half, nine inches. So it’ll be good for the next people
who will be moving in. uh… they’ll be able to use the soil well, ..and now we’re trying to do a no-till garden. So that’s a new step in our direction. To take a close look at Richard’s soil, we took a sample and put it under a microscope. The first thing we noticed was that the
soil was made up of both mineral and organic particles. The next thing we noticed was how much
mineral particles size varied. It turns out that mineral particles can be classified
by size, sands being the largest and clays the
smallest. Sand is gritty to the touch, while
clay has a sticky feel to it. Pure silt, not very common in the
southeast, feels like talcum powder between the fingers. The mix of these sand, silt and clay
particles in a soil is known as soil texture. Clayey soils are fertile but they don’t always drain well. Sandy soils on the other hand drained very well but are generally not
fertile. The soil in Richard’s garden contains
about 40% sand, 40% silt and only 20% clay. This would make it a loam – the soil texture that combines both
good drainage and fertility. If you hold Richard’s soil in your
hand, you can see that it clumps together nicely
into soil aggregates. Soil scientists call this aggregation
property soil structure – keep in mind that structure is a
different soil property to texture. Soil aggregates, or soil peds, can be classified by size, shape and strength. Good soil structure is important in soils
because water, air, nutrients and roots will find it easier to
move between soil aggregates than
through them. One of the surprising discoveries I
recently made was that in an undisturbed soil, about
half of the soil’s volume is
made up of spaces. These spaces are vital to the health of
the soil because they contain air or water- it’s in these spaces where soil
chemistry and biology are at work. Soil scientists tell me that these are called pore spaces. If they are between sand, silt and clay
particles, we call them micropores. The much larger spaces we found between
soil aggregates are called macropores. Macropores are especially important because they become the superhighways
for air, water and nutrients to reach plant
roots. Richard put his rototiller away
a few years ago. Less disturbance by rototilling has benefited his soil by preserving
those pore spaces. More spaces for air, water and roots in the soil means more vegetables on the table for
Richard and his family. I had always thought of pH as a
property of water and not soil. Lemon juice has a pH of about three –
that’s acidic, and baking soda has a pH of about nine – that’s basic. Pure water, which is neutral, has a pH of seven. Now that I realized that more than a
quarter of the volume of soil is water, this make sense. The water chemistry in those pore
spaces is critical to how plants absorb nutrients
from the soil. Richard usually gets his soil tested at the
local extension, but pH test kits like this are available online or at local stores. …between six and seven… His soil is slightly acidic but, it’s in
the range from most of his plants thrive. If the pH is too low his plants will not
be able to take up nutrients like nitrogen and potassium. If the pH gets too high his plants would have problems absorbing
iron, manganese and zinc. So keeping that pH in the 6-7 range
is really critical. As we finished up our visit, Richard shared some of his land
philosophy with me. I believe in stewardship. If..if you’re given
something can you make it..improve it or can it be better for the next person? So we’ve done everything we can to help it be someplace that people
will enjoy later. That got me to thinking. Richard’s soil is a Cecil – that won’t change. But it was clear that there were some
properties in the top six to nine inches of Cecil soil that he had improved
through good management. It means that a Cecil soil could be
healthy or unhealthy, depending on how it’s managed. A healthy or unhealthy soil? This was a fascinating concept that I had
to explore further. I spoke to Pam and told her about my
experience and asked her if management made a difference to the soils. She replied with a story from the
famous soil scientist and father of soil conservation Hugh Hammond Bennett. In the early part of his career, in the 1900s,
he and a colleague were wandering around, when they noticed two pieces of land
side by side. These two pieces of land looked vastly
different, in terms of soil quality. It was obvious that these two areas, at
one time, had been identical. They had the same geology, the same slope,
and the same climate. However, in one area the soil was soft. It was loamy and moist enough that
they could dig it with their hands,
even in dry weather. The other area, in contrast, was very hard and dry. It was almost like a brick. They could not
dig it at all. The difference between these two was that
the soft one, the mellow one, was under a dense forest, while the other one had been
continuously cultivated for decades. Mr. Bennett, or Big Hugh, called this
his epiphany. Big Hugh’s epiphany was about how management
can change soil function. Put in the simplest terms, soil function is its ability to moderate
water flow and storage, to store and recycle nutrients and to sustain life. In the spirit of Big Hugh’s epiphany, I
did a simple test to see how well soil structure holds together in water, it’s called teh slake test. I took two soils – both from the same soils series, one was continuously cultivated and the other had been under no-till
and cover crops for years. The no-till soil measured out at 3% of carbon-rich soil organic matter, the paler, tilled soil at less than half a percent. It didn’t take me long to figure which soil
was healthy. It’s no wonder so many of our Piedmont
reservoirs are the color they are. The difference in the way the two soils
behaved is about glue and string. Soil-life… roots, earthworms, fungi and bacteria, secrete biotic glues. Roots and fungi
also form biotic string, which works with the glues to form a
sticky network that holds soil particles together. The glue and string is what keeps the
pore spaces between the particles open, to provide a place for water storage
and flow, and to provide a habitat for all of the soil organisms. This allows water be stored and
to move through the soil when it’s needed. The easiest way of damaging the
glue and string is by disturbing the soil. Soil disturbance chops up the biotic string and allows piranha-like bacteria to gobble
up the carbon-rich string and the glues, turning them into carbon dioxide and
releasing them into the atmosphere. When i removed the soil organic matter
the pore spaces collapsed and I was left with empty dirt. Any kind of soil disturbance will do
this, the more intense, the more of the soil will be damaged. If Big Hugh were still around he’d
have a fascinating conversation with today’s
soil ecologists. They’d tell him that the glue and string
are part of soil organic matter, which consists of decomposable organic
material, humus and living things. The decomposable organic material is like
the pantry for many soil organisms. Humus, dark and sponge-like, is a very
stable organic substance that remains after many soil organisms have used
and transformed the original decomposable material. One of the functions of humus is to be a sponge that holds water
for drier weather. About 5% of the soil organic
matter’s mass is made up of living things, microscopic soil bugs or soil microbes, and animals that we can see without a
microscope. The weight of the microbes alone under
one acre of this soil’s surface is more than this cow-calf pair. That’s a lot of microbes. It’s the soil biology that
regulates about 90% of the soil’s function of moderating the flow and storage of
water, nutrients and energy ….in your backyard, in the farm field, on our planet. I still worry about urban sprawl and erosion, and the amount of fuel and
fertilizer we use to make food. But there’s good news. Soils are resilient and forgiving! From the Carolinas to the Dakotas, farmers and gardeners are restoring
soil health by working with nature, not against it… they’ve stopped tilling. Completely. They’ve started growing multi-species
cover crops that feed and cover the soil… it’s growing them more and costing them far less. In the cities, they’re planting trees
and rain gardens, restoring old buildings instead of
breaking new ground. School kids are learning more about
soils…. that’s huge. In these last few months, I have come such
a long way,and yet where i stand now, I see how much more
I have to learn. Sometimes I feel all of this can be
overwhelming, but when i think of Big Hugh and what he went through, I think he’d tell me that there’s
hope. I bet he’d like us to call it “humic hope”.

100 thoughts on “Soil Stories – The Whole Story

  1. Thanks. A lot of good stuff is coming from your part of the world as well so i appreciate the time you took to look at this.

  2. Thank you very much. If you Google "raythesoilguy" and "health Soils, healthy Crops" you may find some more useful information on another video sharing site we use. Good luck with teaching& let me know how the kids respond to/learn from the video.

  3. I've been looking for a video which introduces soil science in an easy to understand format for a while. Thanks very much.

  4. very good video …. got me thinking //// my husband wants to roto till the ground so many times in the spring an i cant get him to stop

  5. I wish you would get samples of the trees & soil in the firestorm areas & test for aluminum. They have been blanketing our land with chemtrails for years now so it isnt surprising they r smothering our plants w this concoction. Trees in the south r dying as well due to the same thing but added insult the dispersant corexit. Could you be able to test a tree limb for excess aluminum on it?

  6. Yes, putting marginal soil back into production will take its toll and these's little that can be done about that reconversion. The majority of the eriosn that takes place off these farms can be stopped by paying attentiuon to simple principles of (1) stop disturbing the soil (i.e. stop cultivating), (2) cover the soil (3) keep a luve root in the soil year round and (4) feed to soil with diversity. Google ESRI ENTSC and watch the videos on that Vimeo site.

  7. If we can grow Marijuana in a box why can't we grow all other types of crops in a environmentally controlled building right in the middle of the city? I am working on a design that would allow us to grow local food in the middle of the city. In what would look like a regular building but the size of an average Walmart and about 5-6 stories high. Where we can grow all types of fruits and vegetable all year around. Not effected by seasons which is the primary reason we need so much space.

  8. Urban agriculture, in all its forms is the wave of the future. Growing food in a controlled environment is an attractive idea – predictable and you are right next to your market, in fact your market may want to come to you. These advantages are offset by the price you pay in energy costs – temperature control, importing fertilizer (which is energy intensive) and even growth medium. I wish you well in your endeavor!

  9. I live in Chicago. So fertilizer is abundant and close by. On the energy front that is currently the thing I am looking into Alternatives and efficiency models. As anything on "the grid" is over priced I am looking at about a 150-300KWz
    a day… So like regular farming energy is the main driver of my cost going up.

  10. Cool. BTW I have also taken an interest in urban gardens and have had some success in an unused lot next door. Soil was badly eroded and depleted so I grew a mixed cover crop (rye, vetch, crimson clover, daikon radish & turnips) and then planted my summer veggies into that. No tillage, no fertilizer or pesticides. I have been encouraged by the fisrt years' results. If you go to Buz no-till garden, you'll see how it looked in April. Inspired by Masanubo Fukoka's book "One Straw Revolution".

  11. That sounds like a pragmatic and worthy endeavor. as a last resort to feed resource-poor overpopulated cities, artificial growing conditions may be inevitable. there are, however, complexities and delicate relationships among the countless organisms that make up a natural ecosystem that humans are still far from understanding. Dumping chemicals and artificial light will result in an edible product, but, somehow, I feel sorry for those who will have no other choice but to eat it.

  12. You are mistaking controled growing processes, with ignorant production of dead foods. Do you know how much food we currently eat that is flash grown and denied nutriants needed to make their worth eating? We have learned the best way to bastardize foods for hundreds of years. And now we eat garbage and supplement for what is supposed to be in our diet but is not. I understand the concept of needed organisms to make plants health. There are things we can do inside that we can't outside.

  13. Soil was started by mushrooms! A great video that will blow your mind is called: "Paul Stamets: 6 ways mushrooms can save the world"

  14. If your going to do that I would try aquaponics. Importing any other growing substrate would be too costly. But still, buying all the grow lights and pipes to do this would be very expensive.

  15. I am in high school and Ive wanted to become a soil scientist for a year now. What universities would you recommend?

  16. This stupid bitch wears the same shirt and worn out jeans all through out the video. Wasn't she doing this for some weeks. How da hell she wearing the same clothes.

  17. Good for you Francine and it is your good, that became our good! We greatly appreciate the work you did here, it adds another tool for us! Take care!

  18. According to "One Straw Revolution" by Fukuoka, it took him 30 years to build 4 inches of top soil. That assumes that you have a good ecosystem in your farmland with a lot of trees, shrubs, grass,weeds, insects, microorganisms, etc. In other words, the only feasible way of agricultural pratice is subsistence natural farming. Any commercial farming practice will lead to the elimination of the human race from planet earth in the long run with 100% certainty. 

  19. As you explain later in the video, our soil is being DESTROYED by modern farming practices, tilling being the biggest killer of soil structure.
    No-till is the way to go.

  20. i find this inspiring. here you are, a person who is actively learning about the earth, talking to experts and inviting us to learn with you. you are brave! a less brave person might feel intimidated for not being an expert or not knowing as much as some others, but you on the other hand have told us yourself that you are in the process of learning! for a guy like me who is learning just now, that is inspiring. you are making science accesable to everyone because instead of being too complicated or unrelatable or stuffy, you are a person just like us who wants to learn about the earth. and you went to such great lengths to do it! that is the thing that inspires me most. you took an interest with the earth and you rolled with it. making an entire half hour video, visiting dozens of locations and talking to leading experts. that is passion!

  21. Excellent video, well worth a watch. In a small way I am now trying to improve the soil in my raised beds where I grow vegetables in the warmer months. In the colder months when the beds are empty a covering of leaves, grass and seaweed feed the good guys in the bed and hopefully improve the fertility and replace what the last crop has taken out.

  22. So my science teacher made us watch this during class and has successfully become the most hated person in the Chicagoland Area. This movie is straight up awful and has taught me that every person in South Carolina needs Jillian Michaels. Close your eyes and pass out through this movie because it is simply not worth it.

  23. So glad I stumbled upon this Buz! It could be a nice introductory video to show to the students during the first week of lab!

  24. Top soil is easy and quick to make!! Soil needs moisture, no till, needs to be well drained, and plenty of organic matter and a wide diversity of living roots ( polyculture) growing in it all the time. Then it's upto the soil biology and worms to create good soil. Fertility will keep improving every year!

    * Keyline plowing can create 1 foot of top soil in one year from sub-soil.

    * Wholistic management uses livestock to imitate large wild herbivores grazing methods. Soil is quickly created. Water infiltration is much greater.

    * In my garden i have a compost tumbler with composting worms. I add kitchen scraps, cardboard and other carbon sources and biochar that i make. I do this to introduce a range of soil biology. The garden is thriving!

    For in depth soil info look up Dr Elaine Ingham vids on youtube

  25. I am an 18 year old student taking up agriculture. Where I could find a summarization of this topic? A soft copy ? Thanks.

  26. Excellent video! Though I already knew much of the info in this video (I've been researching soil management for the last few months), the presentation and script were quite good. You certainly have a gift for explaining things in an interesting and concise manner. You are an extraordinary educator. Thank you.

  27. I have spotted lemon tree raised up 4 " from soil lots of pearlite ,roots are thin & brown,do I Need to ad more water ?Roots are dry small indoors under cfl bulb12 hrs a day .it lost most of leaves ? Any help?

  28. Coco coir pearlite & well broken down manure .how to help my tree roots ? I watt 1X a week not heavy it's indoor in winter?

  29. we had to watch this video in my earth science class and lemme just say, that was 30 minutes i'll never get back. thanks a lot.

  30. in the first 1 30 sec you get bs. What happened to the soil??? The wooden plows destroyed the magnetism of the soil. Viktor Schauberger figured it out, at the least use it or people will continue to lose it with opinions instead of facts. The same reason we have GMO crops to make up for the lack of knowledge of the magnetism of the Earth.

  31. why was it so RnB and dreamy. not how i like my soil videos. spent most of the time watching that lady float across the land.

  32. The soil samples of the slake test did not seem to have the same moisture content, although I do not question any of your comments

  33. Advanced high tech agricultural products stemmed from soil science to jump up to export whole into the world !!!
    These are Washington & Abraham Lincoln's precious advise toward us In the USA. We are always proud of agricultural
    international businessman to create new jobs and support our lovely family and kids to get a future dream of this rachers
    and dream farms !!! Our unique God's gift for me to live this land. Amen !!!!!!

  34. Maybe it would be more appropriate to have starving/skinny people narrate this video? The video is very informative and,sadly, tells us that we are not doing all we need to do to continue! Best of luck to all of us!

  35. This is a tremendous resource for those of us who know our soils are "sick" but don't know the science behind why…I am looking forward to getting a load of healthy compost for my urban acre!

  36. It’s just not true, you can form 2 inch, of top soil in lest then a decadent, the data is there to support it ….

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