Stubble cultivation to control perennial weeds in organic agriculture (Nov 2016)

organic agriculture faces a major problem with deep rooting weeds harrowing produces virtually no effect and hoeing with duck foot blades and he superficially contacts the deeper rooting weeds insufficiently controlling them stubble cultivation remains the only effective measure for deep rooting weed control today where we see two types of tilling machinery which can be used for stubble cultivation there are the skin plows and then the cultivators the main difference provided by stubble cultivation is that it allows us to work at different depths depending on the root system the idea is always the same we superficially cut through the soil over the entire surface that is important everything needs to be cut off what varies is the depth the depth must be adjusted depending on the soil and type of root weed for bindweed wild rye and thistles it remains relatively superficial in this case we start out with five centimeters then we go for a second round at 10 centimeters depth after which if necessary the third round follows at about 10 to 15 centimeters for docks however one round at 15 centimeters depth surfaces in contrast to the regular plow the skim plow works here without the skimmer this gives us the advantage of needing less power and the root weeds are not fragmented the flat cultivator needs even less power than the plow it cuts through the soil again over the entire surface at a depth of 8 to 10 centimeters unlike skim plows it does not turn the soil the root weeds are only partially uncovered however the unique character of this flat cultivator is its rear roller which uncovers the root weeds with its star-shaped disks without consolidating our farm uses a number of cereals in its crop rotation and this increases the bindweed problem in the past few years we were however able to tackle the weed rather well by using the flat cultivator we have also improved the dock problem we cut them twice a year so are fewer docks on our farm the main root weed problem is docks presumably due to the former cultivation approach the dock population has drastically risen some of our plots are completely contaminated with docks this is why we are now trying to cut through the soil with a regular wing share cultivator which can fully undercut them at a depth of circa 18 centimeters that is already stirring up the soil a bit then we let the whole thing dry for a bit after which we proceed depending on the weather and time with two three or four rounds with a heavy spring tine error if there is time we gather the root pieces if not we hope that they will mostly dry in the Sun once the dock lies on the surface hot August weather promises success the docks dry rather quickly

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