Tomorrow’s Table: Organic Farming, Genetics, and the Future of Food


MY NAME IS RONNIE GREEN AND I’M THE VICE CHANCELLOR FOR THE INSTITUTE OF AG AND NATURAL RESOURCES HERE AT THE UNIVERISTY OF NEBRASKA. WELCOME TO HARDIN HALL AND TO OUR CAMPUS HERE AT UNL. THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL RESOURCES, MANY OF YOU KNOW, IS HOUSED IN THIS BUILDING, SO WELCOME TO OUR CAMPUS. WE’RE VERY PLEASED THIS AFTERNOON IN OUR CONTINUING HEUERMANN LECTURE SERIES TO WELCOME DOCTOR PAMELA RONALD AND RAOUL ADAMCHAK FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA – DAVIS. YOU’LL KNOW THAT THE HEUERMANN LECTURES IS NOW IN ITS SECOND YEAR. WE’VE BEEN VERY, VERY PLEASED WITH THE ATTENTION THIS LECTURE SERIES HAS GENERATED BOTH ON AND OFF CAMPUS BRINGING INTERNATIONAL AUTHORITIES TO OUR CAMPUS IN THE AREAS OF FOOD SECURITY, WATER SECURITY, NATURAL RESOURCE SECURITY AND THE OVERALL FOOD SYSTEM AROUND THE WORLD. IT IS DUE TO THE GENEROSITY OF KEITH AND NORMA HEUERMANN, AND I BELIEVE, IF I’M CORRECT, THIS IS THE FIRST ONE OF THE LECTURES IN THE TWO YEARS THAT WE HAVE HAD THEM THAT THEY WERE UNABLE TO ATTEND. THEY ARE ACTUALLY OUT OF TOWN TODAY AND WOULD BE HERE OTHERWISE. BUT KEITH AND NORMA ARE FROM PHILLIPS, NEBRASKA BETWEEN AURORA AND GRAND ISLAND, NEBRASKA, LONG-TIME AGRICULTURISTS IN THE STATE AND WERE GENEROUS IN THEIR GIFT TO ENDOW THIS LECTURE SERIES TO ALLOW US TO HAVE THESE FOLKS COME TO OUR CAMPUS. THE LECTURE SERIES IS AVAILABLE ON CAMPUS CHANNEL FOUR AND ON LANCASTER COUNTY CHANNEL TWENTY-ONE AND IT IS ALSO WEB STREAMED LIVE SO IN ADDITION TO OUR AUDIENCE HERE ON CAMPUS WE HAVE OTHERS JOINING US FROM ACROSS THE CAMPUS COMMUNITY AND ACROSS THE STATE AND REGION. WE ALSO ARCHIVE ALL OF THESE LECTURES SO IF YOU HAVEN’T BEEN ABLE TO PARTICIPATE WITH US IN THE PREVIOUS LECTURES IN THE SERIES, I WELCOME YOU TO GO TO THE WEBSITE AT HEUERMANN LECTURES DOT U-N-L DOT E-D-U. TO BE ABLE TO TAP IN AND HEAR THOSE PREVIOUS SPEAKERS. TODAY WE ARE VERY PLEASED TO WELCOME A HUSBAND AND WIFE TEAM, SO THIS IS A LITTLE DIFFERENT KIND OF LECTURE FORMAT FOR US. I WAS ASKING THEM AT LUNCH HOW ARE YOU GOING TO DO THIS WHAT IS YOUR FORMAT THAT YOU ARE GOING TO USE TO PRESENT, SO I’M LOOKING FORWARD TO THEIR CREATIVITY IN THAT REGARD AS WELL. THEY ARE THE CO-AUTHORS OF A BOOK ENTITLED TOMORROW’S TABLE: ORGANIC FARMING, GENETICS, AND THE FUTURE OF FOOD, WHICH IS ALSO THEIR TOPIC FOR THIS AFTERNOON’S LECTURE. LET ME FIRST INTRODUCE DOCTOR PAMELA RONALD SHE’S A PROFESSOR IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY AND THE GENOME CENTER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT DAVIS AND SERVES AS THE DIRECTOR OF GRASS GENETICS AT THE JOINT BIO ENERGY INSTITUTE. HER LAB HAS GENETICALLY ENGINEERED RICE FOR RESISTANCE TO DISEASES AS WELL AS TOLERANCE TO FLOODING. SHE AND HER COLLEAGUES RECEIVED THE U-S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURES 2008 NATIONAL RESEARCH INITIATIVE DISCOVERY AWARD FOR THEIR WORK ON FLOOD TOLERANT RICE. IN TWO THOUSAND TWELVE SHE WAS AWARDED THE LOUIS MALASSIS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC PRIZE FOR AGRICULTURE AND FOOD AND THE TECH AWARD FOR INNOVATIVE USE OF TECHNOLOGY TO BENEFIT HUMANITY. HER RESEARCH HAS BEEN PUBLISHED IN SCIENCE, NATURE AND OTHER LEADING PEER REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND HAS BEEN FEATURED IN SUCH PUBLICATIONS AS THE NEW YORK TIMES FORBES AND THE WALL STREET JOURNAL ALONG WITH OTHERS. SHE IS MARRIED TO AND HER CO-PRESENTER TODAY IS RAOUL ADAMCHAK WHO IS THE MARKET GARDEN COORDINATOR IN THE AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY INSTITUTE ALSO AT U-C DAVIS WHERE HE TEACHERS ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND MANAGES THE U-C DAVIS STUDENT FARM. HE WAS TELLING US ABOUT THAT AT LUNCH TODAY AND I KNOW YOU WILL BE INTRIGUED BY HIS COMMENTS. HE HAS FARMED ORGANICALLY FOR TWENTY FIVE YEARS WORKED FOR EIGHT YEARS FOR AN ORGANIC FARM INSPECTOR FOR THE CALIFORNIA CERTIFIED ORGANIC GROWERS HAS SERVED AS PRESIDENT IN FACT, OF THAT GROWERS BOARD. HE HAS ALSO BEEN A MEMBER OF THE BOARD OF ORGANIC FARMING RESEARCH FOUNDATION. SO I THINK PAMELA YOU ARE GOING TO START IS THAT RIGHT? SO PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING PAMELA RONALD AND RAOUL ADAMCHAK. RONALD: THANK YOU RONNIE AND YOUR TEAM FOR INVITING US TODAY IT IS REALLY A GREAT HONOR AND WE ARE ALSO GRATEFUL TO NORMA AND KEITH HEUERMANN FOR THEIR GENEROUS SUPPORT OF THIS LECTURE SERIES, I UNDERSTAND IT HAS BEEN A VERY SUCCESSFUL LECTURE SERIES AND THANKS ALSO TO JUDY NELSON FOR HER TREMENDOUS ARRANGEMENTS OF OUR VISIT. SO AS YOU KNOW RAOUL IS AN ORGANIC FARMER AND I’M A GENETICIST AND YOU MAY EVEN THINK THAT GENETICIST AND ORGANIC FARMERS DON’T EVEN SPEAK TO EACH OTHER BECAUSE WE REPRESENT SUPPOSEDLY POLAR OPPOSITES OF AN AGRICULTURAL SPECTRUM BUT WE DO HAVE CONVERSATIONS AND IT IS NOT DIFFICULT BECAUSE WE HAVE THE SAME GOAL WHICH IS AN ECONOMICALLY BASED SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE STILL OVER THE YEARS MANY OF OUR FRIENDS, FAMILY AND COLLEAGUES HAVE ASKED US HOW GENETIC ENGINEERING WILL AFFECT THE HEALTH OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND OUR FOOD AND THEY HAVE ALSO ASKED US IF ORGANIC FARMING CAN PROVIDE ENOUGH FOOD TO FEED THE WORLD SO WE WROTE THE BOOK IN RESPONSE TO THOSE QUESTIONS AND OUR INTENTION WAS TO GIVE AND READER A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT GENETICISTS ACTUALLY DO AS WELL AS FARMERS AND TO HELP READERS TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN FACT AND FICTION IN THE DEBATE ABOUT CROP GENETIC ENGINEERING SO THE WAY WE SET THIS UP IS FIRST RAOUL WILL START OFF THE TALK DISCUSSING THE STATE OF AGRICULTURE TODAY ADAMCHAK: MANY OF YOU HAVE PROBABLY NOTICED THAT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IS IN THE NEWS A LOT OFTEN IN THE FORM OF A DEBATE BETWEEN ORGANIC FARMING AND CONVENTIONAL FARMING IN GENETIC ENGINEERING BUT IT REALLY IS ONE OF THE IMPORTANT ISSUES OF OUR TIME AFTER MANY YEARS OF HUMAN BEINGS FARMING WITH REALLY LIMITED KNOWLEDGE ABOUT PLANTS AND ECOLOGY WE NOW HAVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF HOW AGRICULTURE AFFECTS THE ENVIRONMENT WE HAVE KNOWLEDGE AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL OF HOW PLANTS WORK AND WE HAVE A WIDE RANGE OF TOOLS THAT SHOULD ALLOW US TO MAKE SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENTS TO AGRICULTURE AND THAT’S A GOOD THING IT’S A GOOD THING BECAUSE WHEN WE LOOK AT THE KIND OF AGRICULTURE WE HAVE TODAY IT VARIES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. IN SOME AREAS OF WORLD THE U.S. IS VERY PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AFRICA ARE EXTREMELY UNPRODUCTIVE AND THERE IS A WHOLE RANGE OF COUNTRIES IN BETWEEN SOME CAN FEED THEMSELVES AND SOME CAN’T BUT THERE ARE SOME TRADITIONAL ISSUES IN AGRICULTURE THAT PEOPLE HAVE BEEN WORKING ON FOR A LONG TIME AND THEY HAVEN’T BEEN RESOLVED AND IF WE WANT TO HAVE A SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE WE NEED TO RESOLVE THESE ISSUES ONE OF THEM OF COURSE IS THE USE OF PESTICIDES AND PESTICIDES IMPACT THE ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL ENEMIES AS WELL AS PEOPLE AS WELL. SOLUBLE FERTILIZERS THAT COME OFF OF FARMLAND CONTAMINATE GROUNDWATER, CONTAMINATE SURFACE WATER CAUSE PROBLEMS AROUND THE WORLD AND ALSO SOIL EROSION WHICH WE HAVE BEEN BATTLING IN THE U. S. FOR MANY YEARS AND WE’VE HAD IMPROVEMENTS HERE BUT IT STILL A PROBLEM HERE AND IT IS ALSO A PROBLEM THROUGH OUT THE WORLD I’M JUST GOING TO GIVE YOU A BRIEF A COUPLE BRIEF SLIDES ABOUT THOSE ISSUES, JUST TO GIVE YOU SOME PERSPECTIVE ABOUT THE SITUATION THIS IS A SLIDE OF PESTICIDE ANNUAL PESTICIDE USE IN THE U. S. FROM NINETEEN EIGHTY EIGHT TO TWO THOUSAND AND SEVEN AND DESPITE MANY EFFORTS TO REDUCE PESTICIDE USE THE DECLINES REALLY HAVEN’T BEEN THAT SIGNIFICANT OVER THE PAST TWENTY YEARS THERE HAVE BEEN REDUCTIONS IN TOXICITY AND CERTAINLY IMPROVEMENTS IN SAFETY BUT THERE IS STILL A LOT MORE WORK TO DO AND WHAT ALWAYS ASTOUNDS ME IS THAT LIKE IN CALIFORNIA IN THE LAST TEN YEARS WE’VE LOST FOUR HUNDRED THOUSAND ACRES TO HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS AND IF YOU LOOK AT PESTICIDE USE IN CALIFORNIA YOU DON’T REALLY SEE THE IMPACT OF THAT SO IT’S A ALTHOUGH THIS IS AN ISSUE THAT THE [197] ACTIVISTS ARE NOT PUSHING HARD ON THESE DAYS, IT’S A PROBLEM THAT HASN’T GONE AWAY THIS IS A SLIDE OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND ON THE LEFT PART OF THE SLIDE IS A DEAD ZONE THAT’S CAUSED BY THE RUNOFF OF FERTILIZERS FROM THE MIDWEST NITROGEN AND PHOSPHATE MOSTLY AND ALGAE GROW MICROBES BREAK THE ALGAE DOWN THEY USE OXYGEN IN THE WATER THEY TAKE ALL THE OXYGEN OUT OF THE WATER AND BASICALLY NOTHING CAN LIVE THIS IS ONLY ONE OF TWO HUNDRED MAJOR SITES OF WHAT’S CALLED EUTROPHICATION IN THE U. S. THE MAYBE ONE OF TWO THOUSAND AROUND THE WORLD BECAUSE OF INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH I THINK OF THE U. S. AS BEING THE BIGGEST USER OF SYNTHETIC FERTILIZERS, BUT IF YOU LOOK AT CHINA’S USE AND INDIA’S USE YOU WOULD BE AMAZED AT HOW MUCH MORE IS BEING USED THERE AND THEY HAVE SIMILAR KINDS OF PROBLEMS SO HERE A SIXTY FIVE HUNDRED SQUARE MILE DEAD ZONE FORMS EVERY SUMMER AT THE MOUTH OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER THE THIRD PROBLEM IS SOIL EROSION THIS IS A FARM FIELD IN IOWA IN THE SPRING BEFORE PLANTING INTENSIVE RAIN, THE SOIL IS NOT COVERED AND A LOT OF SOIL GOES OFF INTO THE RIVERS BUT IF THERE WAS FERTILIZER OR PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON THE GROUND ALL OF THAT WOULD GO INTO THE RIVERS TOO [248] AND I DON’T WANT TO PICK ON IOWA, SOIL EROSION HAPPENS EVERYWHERE AND AS RESULT THIS IS A MAP OF SOIL EROSION AROUND THE WORLD AND THE RED ZONES ARE THE AREAS WHERE THERE ARE VERY DEGRADED SOILS BUT ACCORDING TO THE U. N. THIRTY PERCENT OF THE WORLD ARABLE LAND HAS BECOME UNPRODUCTIVE OR AT LEAST LESS PRODUCTIVE DUE TO SOIL EROSION AND THE U. S. AND OTHER COUNTRIES ARE STILL LOSING SOIL FASTER THAN THEY’RE REPLENISHING SOIL AND IT IS ESTIMATED THAT FOUR HUNDRED BILLION DOLLARS A YEAR IS LOST DUE TO SOIL EROSION AROUND THE WORLD THOSE WOULD BE PROBLEMS ENOUGH AND I THINK WE COULD REALLY MAKE SOME PROGRESS ON THOSE PROBLEMS BUT OVERLAYING THAT TOMOGRAPHERS ESTIMATE THAT THE WORLD’S POPULATION IS GOING TO INCREASE BY THREE BILLION PEOPLE IN THE NEXT FORTY OR FIFTY YEARS SO NOT ONLY DO WE HAVE TO FEED OUR EXISTING POPULATION WHICH IS ALREADY UNDERNOURISHED, A BILLION PEOPLE UNDERNOURISHED BUT WE HAVE TO FEED ANOTHER THREE BILLION PEOPLE AND WE NEED THE FOOD TO DO THAT AND TO MAKE THAT EVEN MORE CHALLENGING THERE IS ONE LAYER ON TOP OF ANOTHER HERE WE HAVE CLIMATE CHANGE WE HAVE GLOBAL WARMING THIS IS A SLIDE OF DROUGHT IN AFRICA BUT THERE ARE GOING TO BE INCREASED INCIDENCE OF DROUGHT ALL OVER THE WORLD AS WELL AS DEPENDING ON WHERE YOU LIVE INCREASED INCIDENCE OF FLOODING THIS IS BANGLADESH WHICH IS DOWNS STREAM FROM THE HIMALAYAS AND WHEN IT SNOWS AND THE GLACIERS MELT AND THE SNOW MELTS UP THERE YOU GET FLOODING IN ALL OF SOUTH ASIA AND THIS IS A SLIDE OF A RICE FIELD THAT HAS BEEN FLOODED AND THE CROP LOST SO PAM AND I BELIEVE THAT THE DISCUSSION ABOUT AGRICULTURE MUST BE FRAMED IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURE SORT OF THESE ARE THREE PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND WHAT’S MOST IMPORTANT IS DETERMINING THE THINGS THAT ENHANCE LOCAL FOOD SECURITY AND PROVIDES SAFE ABUNDANT NUTRITIOUS FOOD TO CONSUMERS YOU HAVE TO ASK WE HAVE TO ASK IF RURAL COMMUNITIES CAN THRIVE ECONOMICALLY AS WELL AS PROVIDE AFFORDABLE FOOD TO PEOPLE AND THAT IS A TWO-EDGED SWORD IF THE COST OF PRODUCTION ARE HIGH THEN THE COSTS OF FOOD ARE HIGH WE ALSO MUST BE….. AND FINALLY ENVIRONMENTALLY WE HAVE TO REDUCE THE HARMFUL INPUTS THAT I TALKED ABOUT BUT WE ALSO NEED TO REDUCE ENERGY USE SOIL EROSION AND AND MINIMIZE OVER ALL MINIMIZE THE USE OF LAND AND WATER BECAUSE IF WE … THE MORE LAND WE USE FOR AGRICULTURE THE LESS WILD LAND WE HAVE SO AS AN ORGANIC FARMER I THINK THAT ORGANIC FARMING PRACTICES HAVE SOMETHING TO CONTRIBUTE TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ONE OF THE IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER IS THAT WHEN SIR ALBERT HOWARD INVENTED ORGANIC AGRICULTURE HE DID IT IN RESPONSE TO ESSENTIALLY THESE SAME PROBLEMS OF CONVENTIONAL AGRICULTURE SO YOU CAN VIEW ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AS ONE STRATEGY OF SOLVING THOSE PROBLEMS THIS IS A SLIDE OF THE STUDENT FARM A COUPLE YEARS AGO AND IT PROVIDES AN EXAMPLE OF HOW ORGANIC AGRICULTURE USES FEWER PESTICIDES THAN CONVENTIONAL AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS AND WE DO THAT THROUGH CROP DIVERSITY CROP ROTATION THE SUPPORT AND ENHANCEMENT OF BENEFICIAL ORGANISMS…A KEY TO ORGANIC FARMERS IS THE USE OF RESISTANT VARIETIES AND ALSO NATURALLY OCCURRING AND MOSTLY LOW TOXICITY PESTICIDES BASICALLY IT IS AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THAT IS USED IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR NUTRIENTS ORGANIC FARMERS DO TWO MAIN THINGS ONE THEY USE COMPOST AND TWO THEY USE COVER CROPS THE USE OF COMPOST AND MANURE BUT PARTICULARLY COMPOST IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT RECYCLES AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND URBAN GREEN WASTE BACK TO THE FARM OTHERWISE BOTH OF THOSE WASTES CAN END UP AND POLLUTE LAND AND WATER OR THEY CAN END UP IN THE LANDFILL ABOUT TEN YEARS AGO CALIFORNIA BANNED URBAN GREEN WASTE FROM GOING INTO THE LANDFILL AND SINCE THEN THE VAST MAJORITY OF IT HAS BEEN COMPOSTED AND RETURNED MOSTLY TO ORGANIC FARMS THE OTHER KEY TO ORGANIC NUTRIENTS ARE COVER CROPS THEY BOTH BUILD SOIL BY ADDING ORGANIC MATTER AND THESE ARE LEGUMES…THIS IS VETCH AND BELL BEANS AND THEY HAVE A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP WITH A RHIZOBIUM BACTERIA THAT FIX NITROGEN OUT OF THE AIR BRING IT INTO THE PLANT AND WHEN THE PLANTS ARE TURNED IN IT ADDS NITROGEN TO THE SOIL SO EVEN THOUGH THIS IS A GREAT SYSTEM THIS CROP ON OUR FARM FIXES ABOUT A HUNDRED AND FIFTY POUNDS OF NITROGEN A YEAR BUT IT IS NOT A FREE LUNCH IN THE SENSE THAT THE COVER CROP NEEDS TIME AND SPACE TO GROW AND ALL OF THAT NITROGEN ISN’T AVAILABLE ALL AT ONCE BECAUSE IT TAKES MICROBES TO TRANSFORM THAT ORGANIC FORM OF NITROGEN INTO ITS MINERALIZED FORM BUT NEVERTHELESS IT IS A WAY OF PROVIDING NITROGEN TO PLANTS AND ADDING ORGANIC MATTER TO THE SOIL AND ONE OF THE BIG PLUSES OF ADDING ORGANIC MATTER TO THE SOIL AND ALSO OF HAVING IT IN THE ORGANIC FORM IS THAT IT REDUCES NITROGEN LEACHING IN THIS STUDY FROM FIFTY TO EIGHTY PERCENT AND THAT CERTAINLY ONE OF OUR GOALS IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ORGANIC FARMING PRACTICES ALSO HAVE BEEN SHOWN TO REDUCE SOIL EROSION AND IT’S OBVIOUS IF THAT IOWA FIELD THAT I SHOWED YOU HAD BEEN COVERED IN A COVER CROP THEN THE IMPACT OF THE RAIN WOULD HAVE BEEN MUCH, MUCH LESS AND THE SOIL EROSION WOULD HAVE BEEN MUCH, MUCH LESS .. THESE ARE COWPEAS THAT WERE GROWING AT THE STUDENT FARM OVER THE SUMMER AND KEEPING THE SOIL COVERED AND ADDING ORGANIC MATTER HUMUS PARTICLES THAT TIE THE SOIL TOGETHER ARE KEY TO REDUCING EROSION SO YOU MIGHT ASK YOURSELF AFTER THAT, WELL THAT SOLVES THE PROBLEM BUT IT DOESN’T QUITE SOLVE THE PROBLEM BECAUSE THERE ARE SOME ISSUES THAT NEED TO BE ADDRESSED IN WITH ORGANIC AGRICULTURE ONE IS THAT THERE ARE SOME PESTS AND DISEASES AND STRESSES THAT ARE REALLY DIFFICULT TO CONTROL USING ORGANIC METHODS ON OUR FARM WE HAVE AN INFESTATION OF SYMPHYLANS WHICH ARE OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH ORGANIC FARMS AND IT IS VERY CHALLENGING WE’VE TRIED A LOT OF DIFFERENT THINGS WE CAN’T CONTROL THEM SYMPHYLANS ARE LITTLE ARTHROPOD PESTS THAT EAT ROOT HAIRS VERY DIFFICULT TO DEAL WITH, BUT THERE ARE ALSO VIRUSES THAT THERE ARE NOT CONTROLS FOR AND OF COURSE THERE IS FLOODING AND DROUGHT AND FROST TOLERANT AND THINGS THAT ORGANIC FARMING PER SE DOESN’T SOLVE THERE’S ALSO IF YOU DO THE NUMBERS AND THEY ARE A LITTLE CHALLENGING TO DO BUT IF YOU DO THE NUMBERS THERE IS INSUFFICIENT MANURE AND AND GREEN WASTE TO PROVIDE ALL THE NUTRIENTS FOR ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEMS BECAUSE THIS IS AN ANIMAL WASTE BASED SYSTEM AND IF YOU DON’T HAVE THE MANURE OR OTHER ANIMAL PRODUCTS TO FEED THE PLANTS YOU DON’T HAVE MUCH ELSE YIELDS IN ORGANIC IT DEPENDS ON THE STUDY I HAVE A FOLLOW UP SLIDE TO SHOW YOU ARE BETWEEN FORTY FIVE AND A HUNDRED PERCENT OF CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS AND BASED ON TODAY’S REALITY IT SEEMS LIKE A LOT OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS MAY BE TOO EXPENSIVE FOR LOW-INCOME CONSUMERS SO THERE WAS A STUDY IN TWO THOUSAND TWELVE THAT CAME OUT, THAT LOOKED AT MANY OF THE SCIENTIFICALLY BASED PEER REVIEWED STUDIES ON COMPARISONS BETWEEN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL AND FOUND OVERALL THAT YIELDS OF ORGANIC WERE TWENTY FIVE PERCENT LOWER AND IT VARIED WHETHER IS WAS FRUITS, OIL SEEDS, OR GRAINS OR VEGETABLES BUT BUT THE IMPACT OF THAT IF WE’RE THINKING ABOUT PRODUCING FOR THE WORLD IS SIGNIFICANT SECONDLY AS I WAS SAYING ORGANIC AGRICULTURE REQUIRES MANURE FOR NUTRIENTS NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS, POTASSIUM AND A NUMBER OF ..WELL ONE EXPERT IN PARTICULAR DID THE BACK OF THE ENVELOPE CALCULATIONS AND ESTIMATED THE NEED FOR A BILLION MORE LIVESTOCK IN THE U. S. TO PROVIDE ENOUGH MANURE IF YOU WANTED TO PROVIDE NUTRIENTS TO ALL THE FARMLAND USING [568] ORGANIC METHODS AND I HAPPENED TO DO THOSE SIMILAR CALCULATIONS FOR NEBRASKA AND YOU HAVE ABOUT SEVEN MILLION ANIMAL UNITS HERE COWS, SHEEP AND PIGS AND THAT IS ENOUGH MANURE FOR ABOUT HALF A MILLION ACRES IF YOU COULD COLLECT IT ALL AND THERE IS A BIG CHALLENGE THERE BECAUSE IF THE ANIMALS ARE IN THE FIELD IT IS A CHALLENGE AND EVEN IF THEY ARE IN FEEDLOTS YOU LOSE SOME TO THE ATMOSPHERE YOU LOSE SOME TO RUNOFF BUT PRESENTLY THERE ARE SEVENTY SEVEN THOUSAND ORGANIC ACRES OUT OF A TOTAL IN THE STATE OF NINETEEN MILLION FIELD CROP ACRES SO THERE IS ROOM FOR EXPANSION IN NEBRASKA BUT THERE IS NOT ROOM FOR THERE IS NOT ENOUGH MANURE FOR ALL THE STATE’S CROPLAND [602] SO IF YOU WANT TO IMPROVE AGRICULTURE OVERALL AND HAVE A MORE ECOLOGICALLY BASED AGRICULTURE YOU CAN DO SOME OF IT WITH ORGANIC AGRICULTURE BUT YOU CAN DO ALL OF IT SO WHEN I FIRST SAW THIS SLIDE I DIDN’T KNOW WHAT IT WAS I COULDN’T GET MY HEAD AROUND WHAT WAS HAPPENING HERE AND IT TURNS OUT THIS IS A HILLSIDE IN ECUADOR THAT’S BEING FARMED AND IT’S REALLY STEEP IT IS REALLY, REALLY STEEP AND IT’S AN EXAMPLE OF IF YOU NEED MORE FARMLAND THIS IS WHAT YOU START TO FARM AND FARMING HERE CAN BE GOOD FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS SO WITHOUT ADDITIONAL YIELD INCREASES MAINTAINING THE EVEN MAINTAINING THE PER CAPITA FOOD… FOOD CONSUMPTION THAT WE HAVE NOW IS ESTIMATED WOULD REQUIRE A DOUBLING OF THE WORLD’S CROPLAND THE REASON PEOPLE SAY A DOUBLING IS BECAUSE THE LAND, THE NEW LAND THAT IS BROUGHT IN WILL NOT BE AS PRODUCTIVE AS THE LAND WE ARE FARMING NOW SO THAT IS.. THAT IS A SUMMARY OF WHAT I THINK ORGANIC FARMING CAN CONTRIBUTE TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE BUT ALSO SOME REASONS WHY IT CAN’T DO IT ALL PAM NOW IS GOING TO TALK ABOUT THE POWER OF IMPROVED SEED AND THE ABILITY OF MODERN GENETIC APPROACHES TO MAKE CONTRIBUTIONS TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE I THOUGHT I WOULD START OFF HERE IN BALI, SO THIS FARMER AS MANY FARMERS IN THE WORLD LOSE THIRTY TO SIXTY PERCENT OF THEIR YIELD TO PESTS, DISEASE AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AND I WANTED TO GIVE SOME EXAMPLES ABOUT FOUR EXAMPLES THAT ILLUSTRATE HOW MODERN GENETIC APPROACHES CAN HELP ADDRESS THESE CHALLENGES SO FIRST THOSE OF YOU WHO ARE NOT PLANT PATHOLOGISTS THAT PLANTS GET DISEASES AS HUMAN’S DO AND I LOVE THIS IMAGE.. IT IS A TIME-LAPSE VIDEO BY __ AT THE UNIVERSITY OF DUNDEE AND IT SHOWS WHAT A DISEASE CAUSING ORGANISM CAN DO WITHIN FOUR DAYS AND THIS RELATED PATHOGEN IS VERY FAMOUS. A HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS AGO IT DESTROYED THE POTATO CROP IN IRELAND AND DRAMATICALLY CHANGED THE COURSE OF HISTORY BETWEEN EIGHTEEN FORTY FIVE AND EIGHTEEN FIFTY TWO ABOUT ONE MILLION PEOPLE DIED AND ONE MILLION MORE EMIGRATED FROM IRELAND NOW THIS WASN’T ALL TRAGEDY BECAUSE ONE OF THOSE IMMIGRANTS WAS PRESIDENT OBAMA’S GREAT GREAT GREAT GRANDFATHER I GUESS IT DEPENDS ON YOUR POLITICAL PERSUASION SO MY FIRST STORY IS PAPAYA. I WANT TO GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE OF HOW MODERN GENETICS HAS REALLY HELPED PAPAYA FARMERS IN HAWAII SO THIS PAPAYA IS INFECTED WITH A VIRUS CALLED PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS AND YOU CAN SEE THESE SYMPTOMS ON THE FRUIT NOW IN THE NINETEEN FIFTIES THE ENTIRE PAPAYA PRODUCTION WAS GROWN ON THE ISLAND OF OAHU. ESSENTIALLY ALL OF THE PAPAYA PRODUCED ON THE WEST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES ALL OF THE PAPAYA THAT WE EAT IN CALIFORNIA HOWEVER IT WAS DECIMATED BY PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS AND THERE WAS NO WAY TO CONTROL THIS DISEASE THERE WAS NO CONVENTIONAL METHOD THERE WAS NOTHING YOU COULD SPRAY THERE WAS NO ORGANIC METHOD THERE WAS NO NATURAL OCCURRING RESISTANCE THE FARMERS WERE FORCED TO ABANDON THEIR ORCHARDS SO THEY MOVED TO ANOTHER ISLAND AND THEY MOVED TO THE ISLAND OF HAWAII AND AS PLANT PATHOLOGISTS KNOW BECAUSE THERE IS SO MUCH TRADE THAT EVENTUALLY THE VIRUS WOULD BE DISCOVERED IN HAWAII AND INDEED IN NINETEEN NINETY TWO THE VIRUS WAS DISCOVERED IN HAWAII AND VERY QUICKLY AFTER THAT IT PRESENTED A GREAT CRISIS FOR HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FARMERS NINETEEN NINETY FIVE THE PRODUCTION PLUMMETED AND BY NINETEEN NINETY EIGHT THE PAPAYA PRODUCTION HAD DROPPED TO TWENTY SIX MILLION POUNDS SO THE FARMERS WERE LOOKING AT THE CHOICE OF SIMPLY ABANDONING THE ENTIRE INDUSTRY NOW THERE IS A HERO TO THIS STORY THIS IS DENNIS GONSALVES, HE IS A LOCAL HAWAIIAN AND IN NINETEEN SEVENTY EIGHT GONSALVES BECAME INTERESTED IN THIS MODERN GENETIC APPROACH OF GENETIC ENGINEERING SO HE AND HIS CO-WORKERS INITIATED RESEARCH TO DEVELOP STRATEGIES TO CONTROL THE VIRAL DISEASE AND THEY KNEW THIS WAS A BIG PROBLEM IN HAWAII AND AS I SAID IT WAS PREDICTED THAT THE VIRUS WOULD EVENTUALLY HAVE A NEW OUTBREAK SO WHAT THEY DID WAS TO TAKE A SMALL SNIPPET OF D-N-A FROM A MILD FORM OF THE VIRUS AND THEY INTRODUCED IT DIRECTLY INTO THE PAPAYA GENOME USING THIS MODERN APPROACH OF GENETIC ENGINEERING SO THIS IS SIMILAR ALTHOUGH MECHANISTICALLY DIFFERENT TO HUMAN VACCINATIONS AGAINST POLIO OR SMALLPOX AND THIS TREATMENT IMMUNIZES PAPAYA PLANT AGAINST FURTHER INFECTION AND THIS SLIDE IS AN IMAGE FROM STEVE FERREIRA AND THE GROUP THAT WORKED WITH DENNIS GONSALVES OF A FIELD TRIAL IN NINETEEN NINETY FIVE SO WHAT YOU SEE IS AN AREAL VIEW OF A TRANSGENIC FIELD THAT WAS STARTED IN OCTOBER NINETEEN NINETY FIVE AND THE SOLID BLOCK OF GREEN PAPAYA TREES IN THE MIDDLE ARE THEIR NEW GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PAPAYA CALLED RAINBOW AND THE SURROUNDING PAPAYA TREES ARE THE CONVENTIONAL PAPAYA AND YOU CAN SEE THE ARE VIRTUALLY DEAD THESE TREES ARE ALL SEVERELY INFECTED WITH PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS AND JUST TO REMIND YOU THIS IS A NATURALLY OCCURRING INFECTION SO YOU CAN IMAGINE WHAT THE REST OF THE FARMERS’ FIELDS LOOK LIKE IN HAWAII AND AT THIS TIME, IT WAS THE EARLY DAYS OF GENETIC ENGINEERING THIS PROJECT WAS FUNDED ENTIRELY BY NONPROFIT SOURCES THE U. S. D. A. AND IT WAS VERY QUICK TO DO THE FIELD TEST. I THINK THE RULE AT THAT TIME WAS TO PLACE A FENCE AROUND THE FIELD SO IT WAS NOT COSTLY TO CARRY OUT THE RESEARCH, NOR WAS THE REGULATORY ISSUES A PROBLEM AT THAT TIME SO WHAT WAS THE RESULT OF THAT THIS SHOWS YOU A GRAFH FROM EARLY TO… YOU CAN SEE THE NINETEEN FIFTIES HIGH LEVELS OF PAPAYA PRODUCTION AND WHEN THE VIRUS WAS INTRODUCED YOU HAVE THIS MASSIVE, DRASTIC REDUCTION OF PAPAYA BUT THE DARK BLUE ARROW SHOWS THE INTRODUCTION OF THE TRANSGENIC PAPAYA AND THERE WAS A RAPID REBOUND IN THE INDUSTRY AND TODAY VIRTUALLY NINETY TO NINETY FIVE PERCENT OF ALL PAPAYA IN HAWAII IS GENETICALLY ENGINEERED AND THE PAPAYA THAT WE EAT IN CALIFORNIA AND PROBABLY WHAT YOU EAT HERE IS GENETICALLY ENGINEERED AS WELL AND I LOVE THIS STORY BECAUSE IT WAS FOR LOCAL FARMERS, MANY OF THEM POOR IMMIGRANT FARMERS THAT WERE GROWING PAPAYA IT WAS NONPROFIT FUNDED AND I THINK IT IS AN EXCELLENT EXAMPLE OF APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY BECAUSE OF COURSE GENETIC ENGINEERING IS NOT ALWAYS THE MOST APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY. THERE ARE MANY OTHER METHODS AND MANY TOOLS THAT FARMERS HAVE BUT IN THIS CASE IT WAS VERY APPROPRIATE BECAUSE THERE WAS NO OTHER METHOD AS I MENTIONED THAT WAS AVAILABLE TO CONTROL THE DISEASE AND TWENTY YEARS LATER THERE’S STILL NO OTHER METHODS TO CONTROL THIS DISEASE THERE ARE ORGANIC PRODUCTION IN HAWAII STILL RAOUL AND I WERE FORTUNATE TO TAKE A TOUR OF SOME OF THE FARMS OUT THERE AND ONE LOCAL GROWER TOLD US THAT HE TRIED TO GROW SOME PAPAYA ORGANICALLY OF COURSE TO BE CERTIFIED ORGANIC MAYBE WE FORGOT TO MENTION THIS, TO BE CERTIFIED ORGANIC YOU CANNOT USE MODERN GENETIC TECHNOLOGY. YOU CANNOT USE GENETIC ENGINEERING AND AND ACTUALLY YOU CAN USE MANY GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES BUT NOT THIS SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGY OF GENETIC ENGINEERING SO THERE IS A GREAT INCENTIVE FOR FARMERS IN HAWAII TO TRY TO GROW THEIR CROPS ORGANICALLY BECAUSE THEN THEY CAN SELL IT AT MUCH HIGHER PRICES AT ONE POINT IN JAPAN CONSUMERS THERE WERE PAYING TWENTY TIMES HIGHER FOR AN ORGANIC PAPAYA VERSUS A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PAPAYA, SO THERE IS A LOT OF INCENTIVE TO TRY TO GROW PAPAYA ORGANICALLY AND SO WHAT MANY GROWERS ARE DOING AND THIS GROWER IN PARTICULAR THAT WE VISITED HE HAD A BEAUTIFUL FARM BUT TO GROW THE ORGANIC PAPAYA HE CLEARED OUT SOME NATIVE RAIN FOREST BECAUSE THE IDEA IS THAT THE PAPAYA HAD NOT BEEN GROWN THERE SO THE VIRUS WOULD NOT BE THERE SO HE CLEARED OUT NATIVE RAIN FOREST AND WE CAN TALK ABOUT WHETHER THAT IS A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH OR NOT HE PLANTED HIS PAPAYA AND HE SHOWED US IN THE VERY FIRST YEAR THE PAPAYAS WERE INFECTED SO THIS VIRUS IS STILL SPREADING AND SO HE GAVE UP AND IS NO LONGER GROWING PAPAYAS SO THIS IS MY SECOND STORY AND THIS IS AN IMAGE OF A BOLLWORM HATCHING FROM ITS EGG NOW THIS IS A VERY SERIOUS PEST IN FACT IT IS ESTIMATED THAT APPROXIMATELY TWENTY FIVE PERCENT OF ALL THE WORLD’S INSECTICIDES ARE USED TO CONTROL THIS INSECT THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONSIDERS SEVEN OF THE TOP FIFTEEN INSECTICIDES USED ON COTTON IN THE UNITED STATES ARE POSSIBLE OR KNOWN HUMAN CARCINOGENS SO ORGANIC GROWERS FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS HAVE BEEN USING A COMPOUND CALLED B-T IT’S FROM A BACTERIA, AND SPRAYING THIS COMPOUND ON COTTON PLANTS TO CONTROL THIS DISEASE AND GENETICISTS USED ENGINEERED COTTON TO CONTAIN THE SAME PROTEIN AND THIS WAS DEVELOPED IN THE NINETEEN NINETIES AND THESE GENETICALLY ENGINEERED COTTON COULD PROTECT THEMSELVES AGAINST INSECTS AND B-T IS REALLY A FAVORITE INSECTICIDE OF ORGANIC FARMERS BECAUSE IT KILLS PESTS BUT IT IS NONTOXIC TO MAMMALS, BIRDS, FISH AND HUMANS AND THIS HAS BEEN QUITE EMBRACED ALL OVER THE WORLD AND I WANTED TO JUST GIVE YOU A FEW EXAMPLES IN ARIZONA GROWERS CUT THEIR INSECTICIDE USE IN HALF WHILE MAINTAINING THE SAME YIELDS AS THEIR NEIGHBORS AFTER THEY STARTED PLANTING B-T COTTON AND IT IS NOT HARD TO UNDERSTAND WHY THEY WERE ABLE TO INCREASE INSECT BIODIVERSITY IN THE FIELD BECAUSE THEY WERE NOT SPRAYING AS MANY BROAD SPECTRUM INSECTICIDES SO THEY ARE ABLE TO ALLOW THE GROWTH OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS AND THIS IS MEASURED BY THE DIVERSITY OF BEETLES AND ANTS IN THE FIELDS AND THIS WORK IS LARGELY CARRIED OUT BY BRUCE TABASHNIK AND HIS OF COLLABORATORS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TODAY B-T CORN IN COTTON IS GROWN ON A CUMULATIVE TOTAL OF TWO HUNDRED MILLION HECTARES WORLDWIDE WHICH IS MORE THAN ENOUGH TO COVER THE ENTIRE STATE OF TEXAS CALIFORNIA AND IOWA AND IN INDIA THIS HAS ALSO BEEN A VERY IMPORTANT NEW VARIETY THIS IS A COTTON FARMER IN __ INDIA AND STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT YIELDS INCREASED THIRTY TO FORTY PERCENT ON SMALL FARM PLOTS COMPARED TO NEIGHBORING PLOTS THAT WERE GROWING CONVENTIONAL COTTONS AND AS A RESULT FARMERS WERE USING FORTY PERCENT LESS INSECTICIDES BUT THERE WERE ALSO OTHER EFFECTS, SOCIAL ECONOMIC EFFECTS, THAT BENEFITED THE VILLAGERS, AND THIS IS A STUDY BY QAIM AND HIS COLLEAGUES THEY LOOKED AT DATA FROM THREE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY FIVE FARMS IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN STATES OVER A PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS AND THEY SAW IN GENERAL THERE WAS A HUNDRED AND THIRTY FIVE HECTARE PROFIT GAIN WHICH BENEFITED THE COMMUNITY IN SEVERAL DIFFERENT WAYS CHINA TOO HAS BEEN GROWING B-T COTTON FOR QUITE A NUMBER OF YEARS NOW AND THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT BECAUSE CHINA IS THE WORLD’S LEADING PRODUCER OF COTTON THEY PRODUCE SIX POINT SEVEN MILLION TONS PER YEAR AND WHEN THEY STARTED PLANTING B-T COTTON IN NINETEEN NINETY SEVEN THEY SAW VERY QUICKLY A MASSIVE REDUCTION IN INSECTICIDE USE WITHIN FOUR YEARS THEY HAD REDUCED THE ANNUAL USE OF THESE INSECTICIDES BY A HUNDRED AND FIFTY SIX MILLION POUNDS AND THAT IS ABOUT THE SAME AMOUNT OF INSECTICIDES THAT SPRAYED IN CALIFORNIA EVERY YEAR SO THIS IS JUST ONE TRAIT THAT COULD HAVE THAT LARGE EFFECT IN REDUCING INSECTICIDES THERE HAVE ALSO BEEN STUDIES SHOWING THAT INSECTICIDE RELATED ILLNESSES AMONG FARMERS IN THE REGION DROPPED TO A QUARTER OF THE PREVIOUS LEVEL AND YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER THAT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES THERE OFTEN ARE NOT THE SAFETY EQUIPMENT NEEDED TO SPRAY THE MORE TOXIC INSECTICIDES EFFECTIVELY SO FARMERS AND THEIR FAMILIES OFTEN SUFFER BY TWO THOUSAND AND ONE B-T COTTON ACCOUNTED FOR NEARLY HALF THE COTTON PRODUCED IN CHINA SO AGAIN YOU COULD SAY SOLVED THE INSECT PROBLEM BUT IT’S NEVER THAT SIMPLE B-T TECHNOLOGY DOES NOT CONTROL ALL INSECTS IT CONTROLS A CERTAIN TYPE OF INSECTS INCLUDING THE BOLLWORM AND IT WAS FOUND THAT WITHIN JUST A FEW YEARS CHINA’S POPULATION OF OTHER INSECTS DECREASED. THE FARMERS QUIT SPRAYING INSECTICIDES, EVERYBODY IS HAPPY BUT THEN THERE ARE OTHER TYPES OF INSECTS THAT ARE BEGINNING TO INCREASE CALLED MIRRIDS THAT ARE NOT CONTROLLED BY B-T SO THE FARMERS START SPRAYING OTHER TYPES OF INSECTICIDES ONCE AGAIN SO WE REALLY WANT TO EMPHASIZE THAT SEED TECHNOLOGY IS REALLY JUST ONE ELEMENT OF AN OVERALL EFFECTIVE STRATEGY WE CAN’T RELY ON SEED ALONE TO SOLVE ALL OF OUR PROBLEMS AND SO FARMERS REALLY NEED TO INTEGRATE OTHER STRATEGIES TO MANAGE THIS DIVERSE SPECTRUM OF DISEASES AND PESTS THAT ATTACK THE CROP AND MANY OF YOU FARMERS HERE PROBABLY HAVE A LOT OF STRATEGIES. IN ARIZONA THEY USE DIFFERENT TYPES OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS THAT WILL PREY ON SOME OF THE MORE TOXIC INSECTS IN COMBINATION WITH THE B-T TECHNOLOGY SO REALLY THE KEY TO THAT CONTINUED ETHICACY OF USING THESE
00:39:55,292 –>00:39:56,564
TYPES OF B-T CROPS DEPENDS ON INCREASING CROP DIVERSITY AND CROP ROTATION AND OTHER INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES SO FINALLY I WOULD LIKE TO TURN TO SOME WORK, COLLABORATIVE WORK, FROM MY LAB AND SO I WORK ON RICE, WHICH IS A STABLE FOOD FOR MORE THAN HALF THE WORLD’S PEOPLE THREE QUARTERS OF THE WORLD’S POOREST PEOPLE GET THEIR FOOD AND INCOME BY FARMING VERY SMALL PLOTS OF LAND LAND, LIKE RICE AND SO WHEN I WAS A GRADUATE STUDENT …ACTUALLY I WAS WORKING ON PEPPERS AND TOMATOES, WHICH ARE WONDERFUL CROPS VERY EXCITING TO WORK ON BUT I DECIDED AT SOME POINT WHEN I SHIFTED TO WORK ON A POST DOC THAT INSTEAD OF WORKING ON SALAD I WOULD START WORKING ON SUPPER AND I WAS REALLY INTRIGUED WITH RICE BECAUSE IT WAS VERY CLEAR THAT SMALL IMPROVEMENTS TO PRODUCTIVITY CAN HAVE A LARGE AND POSITIVE IMPACT ON LIVES OF MILLIONS OF POOR FARMERS SO I HAVE A TIME-LAPSE VIDEO HERE WHICH IS ACTUALLY IN THE WRONG PLACE, SO I’M GOING TO GO BACK TO THAT AND I WANT TO JUST FIRST TALK ABOUT THIS PROJECT IN COOPERATION WITH DAVE MC___ INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE, SO THIS AREA THAT HAS BEEN CIRCLED HAS A LOT OF FLOODING AND IT’S ALSO WHERE TWENTY FIVE PERCENT OF THE WORLD’S RICE IS GROWN AND AS RAOUL SHOWED EARLIER IN BANGLADESH FOR EXAMPLE THERE ARE MASSIVE FLOODS AND EACH OF THE LAST FOUR OR FIVE YEARS THERE HAS BEEN REALLY TERRIBLE FLOODING ALTHOUGH RICE LIKES TO GROW IN WATER IF IT IS COMPLETELY SUBMERGED THE RICE PLANTS WILL DIE. MOST RICE VARIETIES WILL DIE AFTER THREE DAYS SO A LONG TIME AGO IN THE NINETEEN FIFTIES IT WAS KNOWN THAT THERE WAS A VERY RARE TYPE OF RICE VARIETY WHICH IS SHOWN HERE IN THIS REGION OF INDIA CALLED ARISA THAT WAS HIGHLY TOLERANT TO SUBMERGENCE IT HAS A REALLY AMAZING PROPERTY IT COULD STAY UNDER WATER FOR TWO WEEKS AND THEN WHEN THE FLOOD WAS REMOVED IT COULD START TO GROW AGAIN AND SO THIS CLEARLY WOULD HAVE A HUGE BENEFIT TO FARMERS IN THIS PART OF THE WORLD OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA SO AND I SHOULD JUST MENTION SINCE IT IS WRITTEN ON THE BOTTOM OF THE SLIDE IN BANGLADESH AND INDIA ALONE…. FOUR MILLION TONS OF RICE, WHICH IS ENOUGH TO FEED THIRTY MILLION PEOPLE, IS LOST EVERY YEAR TO FLOODS SO BREEDERS SINCE THE NINETEEN EIGHTIES HAVE BEEN TRYING TO USE CONVENTIONAL METHODS TO INTRODUCE THIS VERY IMPORTANT TRAIT INTO VARIETIES FAVORED BY FARMERS BUT THEY DRAGGED IN … ESSENTIALLY THEY WERE NEVER ABLE TO PRODUCE VARIETIES THAT WERE ACCEPTABLE TO THE FARMERS… THE FARMERS WOULD REJECT THE VARIETIES…THEY DIDN’T HAVE THE TRAITS THEY WANTED AND THAT’S BECAUSE…OFTEN WHEN YOU ARE DOING CONVENTIONAL BREEDING YOU ARE DOING IT IN A SOMEWHAT BLIND MANNER. YOU DON’T KNOW THE GENETICS OR YOU ARE DRAGGING IN UNDESIRABLE TRAITS ALONG WITH IT SO MY COLLEAGUE DAVE MACKILL, WHO AT THE TIME WAS AT THE UNVERSITY OF CALIFORNA-DAVIS HAD MAPPED THIS UNUSUAL SUBMERGENCE-TOLERANT TRAIT TO A REGION OF THE CHROMOSOME AND WE THOUGHT THAT IF WE COULD ISOLATE THIS GENE THAT WE COULD USE THAT GENETIC INFORMATION TO VERY PRECISELY INTRODUCE THIS GENE INTO VARIETIES FAVORED BY FARMERS AND SO WE WERE ABLE TO DO THAT. MY TEAM AT UC-DAVIS WERE ABLE TO ISOLATE THE GENE USING AN APPROACH THAT ORIGINALLY WAS PIONEERED IN HUMANS, IT IS CALLED MAPFACE CLONING WHERE YOU FIND A GENE ON A PARTICULAR CHROMOSOME AND YOU SORT OF WALK STEP-BY-STEP UNTIL YOU CAN ISOLATE THE GENE AND THEN THE WAY WE FOUND OUT WE HAD THE RIGHT GENE IS WE USED GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THIS IS REALLY A CLASSIC APPROACH FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO ARE NOT GENETICISTS, THIS IS WHAT ALL OF US DO EVERY DAY WE TAKE ON THE LEFT A NON…THIS IS OUR CONTROL…. A NON-GENETICALLY ENGINEERED RICE VARIETY BUT THEN WE ALSO INTRODUCED THE CANDIDATE GENE WHICH WE CALLED SUB ONE A INTO THESE TWO VARIETIES THE REASON WE THOUGHT THIS WAS THE CANDIDATE IS BECAUSE IT WAS ASSOCIATED GENETICALLY WITH THIS TRAIT AND ALSO WE WERE ABLE TO SHOW THAT IT WAS RAPIDLY REGULATED UPON SUBMERGENCE SO IT HAD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GENE THAT WE WERE LOOKING FOR
1065
00:44:21,644 –>00:44:23,612B
BUT YOU DON’T REALLY KNOW UNTIL YOU INTRODUCE IT INTO A VARIETY SO WE GENERATED THESE LINES AND BEFORE SUBMERGENCE BEFORE WE START DROWNING THEM THEY LOOK PRETTY GOOD. THE CONTROL ON THE LEFT AND THE TWO TRANSGENIC VARIETIES LOOK VERY NICE BUT AFTER SIXTEEN DAYS OF SUBMERGENCEYOU CAN SEE THE CONVENTIONAL VARIETY HAS VERY LONG, YELLOW DROOPY LEAVES BUT THE GENETICALLY ENGINEERED VARIETIES LOOKED VERY GOOD AFTER SEVEN….AND THEN YOU REMOVE THE FLOOD AND SEVEN DAYS AFTER RECOVERY YOU CAN SEE THAT THE CONVENTIONAL VARIETY IS DEAD AND THE GENETICALLY ENGINEERED VARIETIES ARE SURVIVING SO THIS WAS THE KEY EXPERIMENT THAT TOLD US THAT THIS GENE THAT WE NAMES SUB ONE A DASH ONE IS SUFFICIENT TO CONFER SUBMERGENCE TOLERANT TO HIGHLY INTOLERANT VARIETIES AND, DAVE THEN DECIDED…. NOW THAT WE HAVE THIS GENETIC INFORMATION, SO ONCE YOU HAVE ISOLATED A GENE AND KNOW EXACTLY WHAT THE GENE IS AND YOU ALSO HAVE INFORMATION ABOUT OTHER GENES IN THE REGION ONE REASON I FEEL THIS PROJECT WAS SO SUCCESSFUL IS BECAUSE FROM THE START THE WORK WAS DOTTED BY THE NEEDS OF SMALL-HOLDER FARMERS ADAPTED TO LOCAL CIRCUMSTANCES AND SUSTAINABLE FOR THE ECONOMY AN ENVIRONMENT AND THE KEY GOAL WAS REALLY TO MAKE THESE SEED VARIETIES AVAILABLE TO THOSE THAT NEED IT SO DAVE THEN USED ANOTHER GENETIC APPROACH CALLED MARKER ASSISTED BREEDING TO INTRODUCE THIS GENE INTO VARIETIES THAT WERE FAVORED BY FARMERS IN INDIA AND BANGLADESH AND THIS IS A NICE EXAMPLE OF A FIELD TRIAL WHERE HE USED MARKER ASSISTED BREEDING AND JUST BY LOOKING AT THIS, THIS IS A FIELD THAT WAS FLOODED FOR SEVENTEEN DAYS AND THEN THE FLOOD WAS REMOVED AND YOU CAN GUESS WHICH ONE HAS THE NEW GENE IF YOU CAN JUST COMPARE SAMBA FOR EXAMPLE VERSUS SAMBA SUB ONE YOU CAN SEE THAT THE VARIETY WITH THE SUB ONE GENE HAD A VERY, VERY NICE YIELD AND INFACT IN THESE FIELD TRIALS HE HAS SEEN ABOUT THREEFOLD INCREASE IN YIELD AND NOW I’M GOING TO GO BACK TO THIS MOVIE, I LOVE THIS MOVIE BECAUSE IT SHOWS THE POWER OF GENETICS AND HOW IT GOT IN THE WRONG PLACE I HAVE NO IDEA SO THIS IS A TIME LAPSE VIDEO THAT WAS TAKEN AT THE INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE AND I THINK IT CAN GIVE YOU AN IDEA OF THE EFFECT OF THE… POWERFUL AFFECT OF A SINGLE GENE SO THE PLANTING OF THE TWO RICE. ON THE LEFT IS THE NEW VARIETY DEVELOPED AT THE INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE AND THE RIGHT IS THE CONVENTIONAL. HERE COMES THE SEVENTEEN DAY FLOOD AND THIS SHOWS THE RECOVERY OF THE RICE PLANTS AFTER THE FLOOD. AND YOU CAN SEE THAT THE ADDITION.. ESSENTIALLY OF A SINGLE GENE, OR I SHOULD SAY A SMALL GENOMIC REGION FOR THE GENETICISTS IN THE AUDIENCE, HAS THE DRAMATIC AFFECT, SO THIS YELLOW NOW IS THE GRAIN AND IN THESE FIELD TRIALS DAVE AND HIS COLLEAGUES MEASURED THREEFOLD INCREASE IN YIELD SO THESE WERE CONTROLLED FIELD TRAILS AT THE INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE AND THE NEXT STEP WAS TO INTRODUCE THIS TO FARMERS AND DAVE MACKILL LEAD FOUR YEARS OF FIELD TRIALS AND WE WERE FORTUNATE ENOUGH AS A TEAM TO VISIT FARMERS ON TOP ARE FARMERS IN INDIA ON THE LEFT YOU CAN SEE THEIR VARIETY CALLED SWARNA WHICH IS A VARIETY PLANTED IN VERY LARGE REGIONS OF INDIA AND BANGLADESH AND ON THE RIGHT IS SWARNA-SUB ONE VARIETY AND THE FARMERS OVER FOUR YEARS WERE SEEING A THREE- TO FOUR-FOLD YIELD INCREASE AND THERE HAS BEEN MASSIVE FLOODING EVERY YEAR WHEN THESE EXPERIMENTS WERE CARRIED OUT SO THEY WERE VERY GOOD CONDITIONS FOR TESTING THIS SO WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE BILL AND MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION THIS YEAR SUB ONE RICE HAS REACHED TWO MILLION FARMERS. WE WERE ABLE TO INTERVIEW FARMERS THERE SHE IS SPEAKING A LOCAL DIALECT OF ARISA AND THERE WAS A LOT OF ENTHUSIASM AND IT WAS REALLY A FANTASTIC EXPERIENCE FOR US TO MEET THE FARMERS HEAR THEIR QUESTIONS HEAR THEIR EXPERIENCES AND THEY ALSO GOT A CHANCE TO TALK TO US AS WELL AND THAT WAS FACILITATED AGAIN BY THE INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE IN A PARTICIPATORY BREEDING PROGRAM SO YOU HAVE MOLECULAR GENETICS, PLANT PHYSIOLOGISTS, BREEDERS AND FARMERS HAVE A CHANCE TO MEET EACH OTHER SO FINALLY THIS IS ANOTHER CROP, HERBICIDE TOLERANT CROP. IT’S ONE OF THE MAJOR GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS THAT YOU ARE PROBABLY MANY OF YOU ARE FAMILIAR WITH AND THIS IS A CROP THAT CARRIES A GENE CONFERING TOLERANCE TO THE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSATE WHICH IS ALSO CALLED ROUND-UP AND THE EXCITEMENT ABOUT THIS IS THAT GLYPHOSATE IS CONSIDERED NONTOXIC BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND HAS DISPLACED MANY OF THE MORE TOXIC HERBICIDES AND SO THERE IS A NICE PAPER THAT JUST CAME OUT RECENTLY ON CANOLA PRODUCTION IN WESTERN CANADA FROM NINETEEN NINETY-FIVE TO TWO THOUSAND AND SIX SO I SHOULD SAY THIS TRAIT HAS BEEN INTRODUCED INTO MANY CROPS AND THIS IS JUST AN EXAMPLE OF CANOLA SO IN NINETEEN NINETY FIVE WEEDS WERE CONTROLLED BOTH BY HERBICIDES THAT YOU APPLY INTO THE SOIL AND ALSO BY SPRAYING AND BY TILLAGE, SO YOU ARE TILLING THE SOIL A LOT SO THAT IS HOW THE WEEDS WERE CONTROLLED BUT BY TWO THOUSAND AND SIX THE TILLAGE WAS MOSTLY ELIMINATED AND THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT BECAUSE IF YOU REDUCE TILLAGE YOU REDUCE SOIL EROSION AND YOU ALSO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS BECAUSE YOUR TRACTOR IS NOT PASSING OVER THE FIELD SO MANY TIMES AND THERE ARE SOME ESTIMATES THAT IN ONE YEAR THIS IS EQUIVALENT TO REMOVING FOUR MILLION CARS FROM THE ROAD THIS STUDY FOUND THAT A SIGNIFICANT USE TO LESS TOXIC HERBICIDES WITH AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DECREASE BY FIFTY THREE PERCENT [1195] AND THE FARMERS WERE EXPOSED TO FEWER TOXIC CHEMICALS. THE QUANTITY OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS DECREASED AS WELL SO IN CANOLA IN CANADA THIS HAS BEEN A FAIRLY SUCCESSFUL APPROACH AND FARMERS CONTINUE TO USE THIS NO-TILL STRATEGY BUT OF COURSE AS WE SAID BEFORE A SEED IS NEVER A COMPLETE PANACEA, INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT IS NEEDED IF YOU USE A SINGLE HERBICIDE OVER AND OVER YOU ARE GOING TO SELECT FOR WEEDS THAT ARE RESISTANT TO THE HERBICIDE AND WE ARE SEEING THAT AND WE HAVE BEEN SEEING THIS EVEN BEFORE THE INTRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS JUST ANY HERBICIDE THAT YOU SPRAY OVER AND OVER YOU ARE GOING TO HAVE RESISTANT WEEDS IN CANADA THEY’VE SEEN LESS OF A PROBLEM BECAUSE THEY HAVE A THREE YEAR ROTATION AND THEY ARE INTEGRATING DIFFERENT TYPES OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND THEY ARE USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF HERBICIDES AS WELL SO IT IS REALLY CRITICAL TO CONTROL WEEDS AND NOT ONLY RELY SIMPLY ON GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SEED BUT TO USE MULTIPLE HERBICIDES, CROP ROTATION, AND STILL USE SOMEWHAT A BIT OF TILLING AND RAOUL WANTED ME TO MENTION THIS SLIDE BECAUSE THERE ARE MORE AND MORE FARMERS TRYING TO USE THE MODERN GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES IN COMBINATION WITH SOME PRACTICES FROM ORGANIC FARMING AND THIS IS AN EXAMPLE FROM MATT LIEBMAN WHERE HE COMBINES BOTH ORGANIC FARMING PRACTICES AND GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL OF SUSTAINABILITY SO HE HAS DEVELOPED A SYSTEM THAT INCLUDES COMPOST, USE OF LAGOONS AND AN EXPANDED ROTATION WHICH INCLUDES ALFALFA AND WHEAT AS WELL AS CORN AND SOYBEANS AND USING THIS APPROACH HE WAS ABLE TO REDUCE HIS HERBICIDES BY EIGHTY TWO PERCENT REDUCE NITROGEN USE BY SEVENTY FOUR PERCENT COMPARED TO CONVENTIONALLY GROWN GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CORN AND SOYBEANS AND HIS NET RETURNS WERE GREATER USING THIS MIX SYSTEM AND FINALLY I HAVE TO MENTION THIS SAFETY WE DO KNOW THAT GENETIC ENGINEERING IS A DIFFERENT TECHNIQUE IT HAS BEEN USED FOR TWENTY YEARS WHERE AS WE HAD WHAT WE CAN CALL PRIMITIVE GENETIC ALTERATIONS FOR TEN THOUSAND YEARS, WE’VE HAD CONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR A HUNDRED YEARS, GENETIC ENGINEERING FOR TWENTY YEARS SO WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE, THEY ALL INTRODUCE CHANGES IN THE GENETICS BUT THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND VIRTUALLY EVERY OTHER AGENCY FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD HAVE COME TO THE SAME CONCLUSION WHICH IS THE PROCESS OF GENETIC ENGINEERING PRECISION BREEDING, AND CONVENTIONAL BREEDING PRESENT SIMILAR RISKS IT IS REALLY IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER THAT EACH CROP HAS TO BE LOOKED AT ON A CASE BY CASE BASIS. IT DOESN’T MAKE SENSE TO SAY ALL G-M-O ARE GOOD OR ALL G-M-O ARE BAD BECAUSE IT’S MEANINGLESS YOU REALLY NEED TO CONSIDER THE CROP AND THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE GOAL, WHAT IS THE GOAL OF THAT GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROP THERE HAVE BEEN MORE THAN A BILLION ACRES OF CROPS PLANTED OVER THE LAST TWENTY YEARS AND THERE HAS NOT BEEN A SINGLE CASE OF ADVERSE HEALTH OR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS SO FOR THESE REASONS THE CONSENSUS IN THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY IS THERE IS NO BASIS FOR RULING OUT GENETIC ENGINEERING AS A TOOL FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT SO WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF AGRICULTURE, SO IMAGINE THE WORLD YOUR CHILDREN WILL LIVE IN FIFTY YEARS FROM KNOW IF WE DON’T MAKE CHANGES IN AGRICULTURE WE KNOW WE WILL SEEK CONTINUED ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION, LACK OF FOOD AND WATER FOR MANY AND INCREASE GLOBAL CONFLICTS OVER THAT FOOD AND WATER AND THERE ARE MANY COMPONENTS NEEDED FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD PRODUCTION AND SEED IS JUST ONE COMPONENT BUT IT REALLY IS A VERY IMPORTANT COMPONENT AND I JUST WANT TO REMIND YOU OF THE DRAMATIC ADVANCEMENTS IN PLANT GENETICS IN REALLY A VERY SHORT TIME TEN TO FIFTEEN YEARS THIS IS A LITTLE MUSTARD WEED CALLED ARABIDOPSIS AND HAS A VERY SMALL GENOME AND IT WAS THE FIRST PLANT GENOME SEQUENCED IT TOOK SEVEN YEARS TO GET THE COMPLETE SEQUENCE. SEVENTY MILLION DOLLARS AND FIVE HUNDRED PEOPLE AND AT THE TIME A LOT OF PEOPLE QUESTIONED THE WORTHINESS OF SEQUENCING THIS LITTLE MUSTARD ACTUALLY AT THE SAME TIME PEOPLE WERE QUESTIONING WHETHER IT WAS WORTHWHILE TO SEQUENCE THE HUMAN GENOME. IT WAS TRULY VERY COSTLY AND IT TRULY DID TAKE A LOT OF FUNDS FROM DIFFERENT KINDS OF RESEARCH BUT CONSIDER THE SITUATION TODAY NEXT YEAR THIS YEAR IT IS EXPECTED THE SAME PROJECT TO TAKE TWO TO THREE MINUTES AND COST NINETY NINE DOLLARS AND IT IS NOT ONLY THE ARABIDOPSIS GENOME WE HAVE. WE HAVE THE CORN GENOME, WE HAVE THE RICE GENOME WE HAVE THE BANANA GENOME AND THE BANANA IS THE FOURTH STAPLE FOOD IN THE WORLD. IT IS THE PRIMARY STAPLE FOOD FOR A HUNDRED MILLION AFRICANS AND WE HAVE SOON THE WHEAT GENOME AND NOW NOT ONLY DO WE HAVE A SINGLE GENOME BUT WE HAVE MULTIPLE GENOMES OF THESE DIFFERENT PLANT SPECIES AND THAT IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE EVERY DIFFERENT VARIETY HAS DIFFERENT GENES WITH VERY IMPORTANT AGRONOMIC TRAITS THAT BREEDERS CAN USE TO ENHANCE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF OUR FARMS SO IT IS A VERY EXCITING TIME IN PLANT GENETICS FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO ARE STUDENTS AND ARE INTERESTED IN PURSUING A CAREER SO I BELIEVE THAT IT WOULD BE FOOLISH NOT TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF ADVANCEMENTS IN PLANT GENETICS AND TO USE THIS KNOWLEDGE FOR PUBLIC GOOD WE BELIEVE THAT THE JUDICIOUS INCORPORATION OF TWO IMPORTANT STRANDS OF AGRICULTURE — AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY AND AGROECOLOGY REALLY ARE KEY TO HELP FEED THE GROWING POPULATION IN A ECOLOGICALLY BALANCED MANNER AGRICULTURE REALLY NEEDS OUR COLLECTIVE HELP AND ALL APPROPRIATE TOOLS WE FEEL VERY STRONGLY THAT PITTING GENETIC ENGINEERING AND ORGANIC FARMING AGAINST EACH OTHER ONLY PREVENTS THE TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGES THAT WE NEED ON OUR FARMS AND THERE REALLY SEEMS TO BE A COMMUNICATION GAP BETWEEN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL FARMERS AND BETWEEN CONSUMERS AND SCIENTISTS AND THE STAKES ARE VERY HIGH IN CLOSING THAT GAP WITHOUT GOOD SCIENCE AND GOOD FARMING WE CANNOT EVEN BEGIN TO DREAM ABOUT ESTABLISHING AN ECOLOGICALLY BASED, BIOLOGICALLY BASED SYSTEM OF FARMING AND ENSURING FOOD SECURITY SO TO CONCLUDE WE NEED EVERYBODY AT THE TABLE. WE REALLY APPRECIATE YOU ALL COMING TODAY WE HAVE THE KNOW HOW THE TOOLS AND THE RESOURCES TO CREATE CROPS FOR THE MILLIONS THAT NEED THEM AND TO ACCOMPLISH THIS WE NEED YOUR CONTINUED HELP SO THANK YOU VERY MUCH AND WE’RE HAPPY TO TAKE QUESTIONS GREEN: SO WE HAVE MICROPHONES BOTH IN THE UPPER DECK AND ON THE FLOOR HERE SO JILL AND BETTY HAVE THOSE MICS SO IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION PLEASE USE THE MIC SO IT COMES ACROSS ON THE WEB STREAM ONE HERE ON THE FLOOR QUESTION: THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME MY QUESTION IS TO YOU RAOUL YOU PRESENTED ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND MANURE AS LACKING HOWEVER WHAT YOU REALLY COVERED WHAT SEEMED TO ME WAS ANNUAL CROPS AND NOT INCORPORATING PERENNIALS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF INCREASING THE BIOMASS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS NEEDED TO CREATE THE COMPOST NEEDED NOT JUST THE ANIMALS AND THE MANURE BUT A ALSO THE FOLIAGE THAT WE COULD USE AS WELL IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS I THINK GUESS I HAVE A FEW STATEMENTS MORE THAN QUESTIONS AND YOU CAN TAKE IT OF I THINK PART OF IT IS CONTINUING WITH THE SAME WAY WE DO AGRICULTURE THAT IS CONTINUING OUR STAPLE CROPS OF RICE, AND CORN AND SOY AND A FEW OF THESE THINGS VERSUS TRANSFORMING THE WAY WE LOOK AT FOOD AS A WHOLE AND MAYBE GOING TOWARDS A PERENNIAL BASED SYSTEM THAT WILL INCORPORATE MORE OF AN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM THAT WILL HELP AGGRADATION AND NOT DEGRADATION OF OUR SOILS I HAVE A LOT OF THINGS I WANT TO SHARE I WAS WONDERING IF YOU WOULD TOUCH ON THAT A LITTLE BIT OR JUST MAYBE THE LOCAL THE LOCAL SYSTEM OF INCORPORATING ANIMALS INTO THE WHOLE SYSTEM VERSUS WE NEED MORE ANIMALS SO THAT WE CAN DISTRIBUTE THE MANURE ACROSS THE U-S VERSUS HOW WE CREATE THE MANURE ON THE FARM TO BE MORE OF A HOLISTIC LOCAL SYSTEM ADAMCHAK: SO THERE ARE TWO ISSUES THERE THAT ARE IMPORTANT ONE IS PERENNIALS OF COURSE NEED NUTRIENTS TOO AND TRANSPORTING THOSE NUTRIENTS IS ACTUALLY A BIG CHALLENGE IF YOU JUST WANT TO USE ORGANIC SOURCES SO THERE’S A REPORT THAT I FOUND THAT THE U-S-D-A DID WHERE THEY LOOKED AT MANURE SOURCES IN THE U-S VERSUS CROP FIELDS IN THE U-S. AND THE CHALLENGE OF GETTING THE MANURE FROM THE SOURCES TO THE CROP FIELDS AS IT EXISTS NOW IS A BIG ONE AND AN EXPENSIVE ONE WHETHER THE CROP YIELD IS A PERENNIAL OR A ANNUAL THOSE PLANTS STILL NEED NITROGEN, THEY STILL NEED PHOSPHOROUS, THEY STILL NEED POTASSIUM, THEY STILL NEED ALL THOSE NUTRIENTS AND THE OTHER QUESTION YOU HAD [1453] ANIMALS…. SO THAT WAS THE ORIGINAL VISION OF SIR ALBERT HOWARD THAT THE ANIMALS ARE ON THE FARM AND AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE THEY PROVIDE THE NUTRIENTS IN A CYCLIC SYSTEM TO THE PLANTS FOR MUCH OF THE U.S. WE’VE GOTTEN AWAY FROM THAT SYSTEM FOR A VARIETY OF REASONS AND RETURNING IT TO A SYSTEM WHERE ANIMALS ARE ON THE FARM IS CERTAINLY A POSITIVE THING TO DO BUT WHAT THAT WOULD MEAN EVEN IF YOU JUST DO THE NUMBERS IS THAT YOU NEED A LOT MORE ANIMALS ON A LOT MORE FARMS AND IF THE THE MANTRA OF ORGANIC FARMING REALLY SHOULD BE EAT MORE MEAT BECAUSE WE NEED THE ANIMALS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE NUTRIENTS FOR THE PLANTS THE CHINESE FORTY CENTURIES AGO HAD A SOLUTION FOR THIS AND THEY WERE RETURNING HUMAN WASTE BACK TO THE FARMS AND THAT REALLY IS THE COMPLETE CYCLE OF A BALANCED SYSTEM AND IT DOESN’T SEEM LIKE THE U. S. OR ANYONE IN THE WORLD IS ANYWHERE CLOSE TO MAKING THAT A REALITY IT IS PROHIBITED…RIGHT….FOR ORGANIC, RIGHT NOW IT IS PROHIBITED IN ORGANIC FARMING TO USE HUMAN WASTE SO THERE ARE OTHER SOLUTIONS BUT THEY ARE CHALLENGING ONES A LOT OF IT HAS TO DO WITH TRANSPORTATION THE OTHER THING IS OF COURSE IS THAT IF YOU WANT MORE ANIMALS YOU HAVE TO FEED THEM SO YOU HAVE TO ALLOCATE MORE LAND TO FEEDING ANIMALS INSTEAD OF FEEDING PEOPLE SO THERE IS A BALANCE THERE AND I DON’T THINK THERE ARE ANY EASY ANSWERS BUT IT JUST SEEMS LIKE ANIMALS ALONE AND GREEN WASTE AND OTHER ORGANIC SOURCES AREN’T GOING TO PROVIDE NUTRIENTS FOR ALL THE ACRES GREEN: WE HAVE A QUESTION RIGHT HERE IN THE BACK QUESTION: I HAVE TWO QUESTIONS. WHAT ARE SOME EXCITING DEVELOPMENTS IN FOOD GENETICS OVER THE NEXT TWENTY YEARS? AND ANOTHER ONE IS BECAUSE OF LOWER YIELDS WHY IS ORGANIC FARMING NOT A REGRESSIVE TAX ON LOWER INCOME PEOPLE? [1527] I COULDN’T QUITE HEAR THAT. GREEN: CAN YOU REPEAT THE LAST ONE. QUESTION: DUE TO THE LOWER YIELDS WHY IS ORGANIC FARMING NOT A REGRESSIVE TAX [1531] ON LOWER INCOME INDIVIDUALS? ADAMCHAK: A REGRESSIVE TAX I DON’T KNOW IF I CAN ANSWER THAT BUT IN A WAY ORGANIC FOOD THESE DAYS IS BEING PURCHASED LARGELY BY AFFLUENT PEOPLE LOW INCOME PEOPLE FOR THE MOST PART UNLESS THEY ARE VERY IDEOLOGICALLY MOTIVATED WOULD HAVE A HARD TIME PAYING THAT MUCH FOR FOODS THAT THEY GET FOR A SIGNIFICANTLY LESS GREEN: NEXT TWENTY YEARS, GENETICS AND FOOD, WHAT WOULD YOU PREDICT RONALD: SO THE NEXT TWENTY YEARS THERE ARE A LOT OF PEOPLE WORKING ON VIRAL DIFFERENT TYPES OF VIRAL RESISTANT CROPS SO GENETIC ENGINEERING FOR VIRAL RESISTANCE IS REALLY VERY PROMISING. THERE ARE MANY VIRAL DISEASES THAT THERE IS JUST NO WAY TO CONTROL THESE DISEASES AND IT IS KIND OF CONCEPTUALLY EASY TO UNDERSTAND ESPECIALLY…SOME OF YOU MAY HAVE HAD THE FLU RECENTLY, IT IS NOT VERY FUN VIRAL DISEASES ARE VERY DIFFICULT TO COMBAT USING STANDARD METHODS, SO THERE ARE A LOT OF GROUPS AROUND THE WORLD DEVELOPING VIRAL RESISTANT CROPS THERE IS A PLUM THAT WAS JUST RELEASED U-S-D-A CERTIFIED THAT IT IS RESISTANT TO A SERIOUS VIRAL DISEASE REALLY BIG EFFORT IN MANY PARTS OF THE WORLD IS DROUGHT TOLERANCE PARTLY BECAUSE OF THE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE WE ARE SEEING MASSIVE DROUGHTS AROUND THE WORLD ALSO BECAUSE OF THE ADVANCES IN PLANT GENETICS WE KNOW SO MUCH MORE ABOUT THE MOLECULAR MECHANISMS UNDER LINE DROUGHT TOLERANCE THAT THERE ARE CROPS SEVERAL ON THE VERGE OF BEING RELEASED AND THOSE ARE GOING TO BE VERY IMPORTANT WE ALSO ..WE DIDN’T HAVE TIME TO TALK ABOUT GOLDEN RICE WHICH IS REALLY IMPORTANT AND EXCITING PROJECT THIS IS FUNDED BY THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION FOR MANY YEARS THERE ARE MILLIONS OF CHILDREN AROUND THE WORLD THAT HAVE VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY AND THAT LEADS TO VERY SERIOUS DISEASES SUCH AS DIARRHEA AND BLINDNESS…IT IS ESTIMATED THAT FIVE HUNDRED THOUSAND CHILDREN GO BLIND EVERY YEAR BECAUSE OF LACK OF VITAMIN A AND HALF OF THOSE WILL DIE SO THERE IS A GOLDEN RICE THAT HAS BEEN DEVELOPED WITH ENHANCED VITAMIN A CONTENT IT IS EXPECTED TO BE RELEASED AS SOON AS NEXT YEAR. PROBABLY THE PHILIPPINES WILL BE THE FIRST PLACE IT WILL BE RELEASED THE PREDICTIONS CONSERVATIVE PREDICTIONS PUBLISHED IN HIGH LEVEL JOURNALS SUCH AS NATURE ARE PREDICTING THAT WITH IN THE FIRST YEAR THE LIVES OF FOUR THOUSAND CHILDREN WILL BE SAVED I THINK THAT IS ALSO A VERY EXCITING EXAMPLE AND I HOPE PEOPLE PAY ATTENTION TO THAT .. IT IS ONE OF THE THINGS WE DON’T PAY ATTENTION TO HERE IN THE UNITED STATES. WE GIVE OUR CHILDREN VITAMIN D, FORTIFIED MILK, IRON FORTIFIED BREAD. WE GIVE THEM VITAMINS. WE DON’T HAVE THOSE DEFICIENCIES, THEY ARE NOT VERY COMMON IN MOST COMMUNITIES BUT IN LESS DEVELOPED WORLD THEY ARE REALLY, REALLY CRITICAL AND SPENT FIFTY YEARS OF TRYING TO DELIVER VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS TO THESE COMMUNITIES, TRYING TO ENHANCE CULTIVATION OF LEAFY GREENS AND CARROTS, BUT THERE IS STILL MILLIONS OF CHILDREN DYING. SO THE IDEA IS IF YOU HAVE A FORTIFIED RICE AND THEY ARE EATING IN THESE COMMUNITIES RICE THREE TIMES A DAY YOU CAN REALLY HAVE A BIG IMPACT SO THERE IS GOING TO BE QUIT A DIVERSE NUMBER AND TYPES OF SPECIES CROPS THAT WE ARE GOING TO SEE OUT THERE. GREEN: QUESTION UP TOP LOOKS LIKE SEVERAL QUESTION: SO YOU TALKED ABOUT HOW CROP DIVERSITY IS REALLY IMPORTANT LIKE IN THE EXAMPLE FROM THE FARM AT UC-DAVIS AND MAYBE SOME OF THE PROBLEMS WITH MONOCULTURES IT SEEMS TO ME THAT DOESN’T TRANSLATE VERY EASILY TO LARGE SCALE CORPORATE FARMS AND SO I’M THINKING ABOUT EATING LOCALLY AND SMALL SCALE LOCAL FARMS, WHAT ROLE DOES THAT PLAY OR DOES THAT HAVE A PLACE IN A MODEL OF SUSTAINABILITY [1617] FOR FOOD ADAMCHAK: YOU KNOW I THINK THERE IS ALWAYS A PLACE IN A FOOD SUSTAINABILITY MODEL FOR LOCAL FOOD LOCAL FOOD IS GREAT BECAUSE IT CUTS DOWN ON TRANSPORTATION COSTS IT IS FRESHER YOU KNOW WHO IS GROWING IT I DON’T THINK LOCAL FOOD WILL EVER GO AWAY. I THINK THERE IS GOING TO BE MORE AND MORE OF IT IN FACT BUT I DO ALSO THINK THAT IF YOU WANT TO IMPACT AGRICULTURE OVERALL TO MAKE IMPROVEMENTS IN PESTICIDE USE AND NITROGEN RUNOFF AND SOIL EROSION YOU HAVE TO HAVE A SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM FOR THE LARGER GROWERS AS WELL I WAS TALKING TO A GROWER HERE WHO THEY GROW A DIVERSE NUMBER OF CROPS ON A FARM THEY HAVE ABOUT [1641] NOT EXACTLY SURE, BUT ABOUT A THIRTY FIVE HUNDRED ACRE FARM THEY GROW DIVERSE CROPS THEY HAVE ANIMALS ON THE FARM THEY HAVE ROTATIONS THEY HAVE BIO-DIVERSITY AND I THINK IT CAN WORK ON ANY SCALE BUT THE GROWER HAS TO MAKE A COMMITMENT TO DEVELOPING A MORE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE RONALD: AND MAYBE JUST ADD TO THAT THAT LOCAL FOOD SECURITY IS VERY IMPORTANT IN PLACES LIKE AFRICA WHERE THERE AREN’T ROADS AND IF YOUR CROP DIES WHERE ARE YOU GOING TO GET THE FOOD AND SO THERE IS A BIG EFFORT FOR PROVIDING TECHNOLOGIES TO THOSE FARMERS THAT CAN’T GET FOOD OTHERWISE THEY HAVE TO PRODUCE THE FOOD THEMSELVES AND THEN YOU HAVE TO CONSIDER THE MEGA CITIES THAT ARE DEVELOPING IN CHINA AND INDIA. AND TWENTY MILLION PEOPLE LIVING IN JUST TINY, TINY AMOUNTS OF LAND AND REALLY THE ONLY WAY THEY ARE GOING EAT IS IF THERE ARE MASSIVE FARMS OUTSIDE THE CITIES AND FOOD IS BROUGHT INTO THE CITIES SO YOU REALLY NEED TO HAVE THIS BALANCE, I THINK, OF VERY LARGE FARMS DELIVERING TO THESE ENORMOUS CITIES AND HAVE A HUSBAND THAT IS A FARMER THAT CAN BRING YOU HOME YOUR FOOD EVERYDAY, THAT IS NICE TOO [1674] GREEN: I THINK SALLY MCKINSEY HAS A QUESTION TWO MORE QUESTIONS UP THERE QUESTION: I HAVE A QUESTION ABOUT HOW GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ORGANISMS AND THE PATENTS THAT ARE PUT ON THEM… WE’VE SEEN SOME ISSUES WITH MONSANTO AND OTHER CORPORATIONS THAT USE THE ROUNDUP READY SEED AND WHEN THEY GO AND POLLINATE OTHER FARMS THAT HAVEN’T PAID FOR THAT PATENT THEY GET INTO LEGAL TROUBLE WITH THAT SO WHAT KIND OF LEGAL ISSUES CAN GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS BRING ABOUT RONALD: WELL I THINK ANY TIME YOU HAVE A SEED INDUSTRY AND IN THE UNITED STATES WE HAVE HAD PRIMARILY ALL OF THIS SEED ALMOST IN AND U. S. OK NOT ALL THE SEED BUT A LARGE PART OF THE SEED IS HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION FROM VERY LARGE CORPORATIONS. FARMERS ARE BUYING THE SEED, ORGANIC FARMERS BUY THE SEED THOSE ARE ALL PATENTED LINES AND WHEN YOU HAVE GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SEED THE GENES ARE ALSO PATENTED SO IT IS REALLY.. IT’S REALLY THE SAME ISSUES .. REALLY IMPORTANT ISSUES I AM NOT SURE THAT THE ADVENT OF GENETIC ENGINEERING HAS SHIFTED HOW WE NEED TO LOOK AT THAT BUT I THINK IT IS IMPORTANT TO CONTINUE TO HAVE A DIVERSIFIED SEED INDUSTRY THAT YOU DON’T JUST HAVE A FEW SEED INDUSTRIES THAT HAVE ALL THE VARIETIES AND EVERYTHING PATENTED AND WHEN YOU THINK OF LESS DEVELOPED WORLD YOU OFTEN AT LEAST TODAY, THINGS ARE CHANGING SO RAPIDLY BUT FOR EXAMPLE THE RICE THAT WE DEVELOPED WE INTRODUCED A NEW GENE THAT IS DISTRIBUTED THROUGH LOCAL CERTIFIED AGENCIES THERE IS NO PATENT ON THE GENE AND AMERICAN CORPORATIONS AREN’T SO INTERESTED AT THE TIME IN THOSE SEEDS ANYWAY BECAUSE THESE ARE PEOPLE THAT ARE SUBSISTENT FARMERS SO THEY ARE GROWING THE SEEDS THEY ARE __ THE SEED, THEY ARE REPLANTING THE SEEDS AND SO I THINK IT IS IMPORTANT TO SEPARATE THESE ISSUES SO THE ISSUES OF PATENTS AND WHO OWNS THE SEED IS REALLY IMPORTANT BUT I THINK IT HAS TO BE SEPARATED FROM THE TECHNOLOGY OF GENETIC ENGINEERING BECAUSE GENETIC ENGINEERING IS USED FOR LOTS OF DIFFERENT PURPOSES. ADAMCHAK: ONE MORE COMMENT IF IT WASN’T CLEAR IN WHAT PAM SAID SEED COMPANIES THESE DAYS ARE NOT ONLY PATENTING GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SEEDS THEY ARE PATENTING TRADITIONALLY BRED SEEDS AS WELL ESPECIALLY THE PARENT LINES OF THEIR HYBRIDS SO THE ISSUE IS MUCH BROADER THAN JUST GENETIC ENGINEERING IT IS REALLY AN ISSUE OF THE SEED INDUSTRY AND WHAT ROLE PATENTING PLAYS IN OUR WHOLE CROP SYSTEM AND IT IS REALLY A CHALLENGING ONE BECAUSE IF SEED DIVERSITY IS REDUCED BECAUSE OF THIS I DON’T THINK THAT THE GROWERS OR THE CONSUMERS BENEFIT AND SO I WOULD LIKE TO SEE MUCH MORE DIVERSITY THE SEED INDUSTRY LESS CONSOLIDATION, LESS BUYING UP OF COMPANIES I THINK THAT IS IN OUR LONG TERM BENEFIT GREEN: SO WE ARE GOING TO TAKE TWO MORE QUESTIONS ONE UP TOP AND JILL HAS ONE DOWN BELOW AND THEN WE WILL LET PEOPLE VISIT WITH THE GUESTS AFTERWARDS SALLY QUESTION: SO FIRST I JUST WANT TO THANK YOU THIS IS THE HUGE SERVICE YOU ARE DOING FOR THE COMMUNITY, CERTAINLY FOR THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY JUST DOING THESE TALKS MY QUESTION TO YOU IS WITH REGARD TO THE HYPERVIRULENT NEGATIVITY AND REALLY SCARE TACTICS ASSOCIATED WITH G-M TECHNOLOGIES WHO BENEFITS FROM THAT SCARE EFFORT AND WHAT DO YOU THINK ACTUALLY MOTIVATES THAT NOW. I THINK YOU HAVE MADE A GOOD PRESENTATION. IT IS NOT SCIENCE IT’S NOT AN ISSUE OF SCIENCE IT’S SOMETHING ELSE AND IT ISN’T EVEN SO SIMPLE AS BEING A SOCIAL ISSUE SO I WOULD LIKE TO HEAR YOUR COMMENTS ON WHERE YOU THING THE NEGATIVITY COMES FROM AND AS WELL THE EFFORTS TOWARD MISINFORMATION WHICH I KNOW YOU ARE TRYING TO ADDRESS HERE. RONALD: OF COURSE IT IS A DIFFICULT…AN IMPORTANT QUESTION ..AND DIFFICULT TO ANSWER. AND I THINK…AND YOU KNOW IT IS DIFFERENT IN EVERY LOCATION SO WE JUST HAD THIS BALLOT INITIATIVE IN CALIFORNIA TO LABEL PROP THIRTY SEVEN… SO IN CALIFORNIA YOU CAN PUT WHATEVER YOU WANT ON A … TO THE VOTERS AND YOU GET ENOUGH PEOPLE TO SIGN IT AND THIS PARTICULAR BALLOT INITIATIVE WAS VERY CONTROVERSIAL MOST PEOPLE THOUGHT IT WAS POORLY WRITTEN WHETHER THEY WERE FOR IT OR AGAINST IT BUT BASICALLY IT HAD THE SKULL AND CROSSBONES G-M-O HAD TO BE PUT ON VIRTUALLY ALL THE FOOD, ANY PROCESSED FOOD NOW HAS ..HAD TO BE LABELED AND IT WAS DEFEATED AND SO THE SUPPORT FOR THAT CAME FROM A VITAMIN SALESMAN WHO HAD BEEN REPRIMANDED AND PERHAPS EVEN INDICTED A COUPLE TIMES BY F-D-A FOR FALSE INFORMATION AND HE IS A MILLIONAIRE AND HE I GUESS STANDS TO PROFIT FROM THIS TYPE OF FEAR MONGERING SO THERE IS THAT SADLY CYNICAL SITUATION UNFORTUNATELY, I THINK THE ORGANIC INDUSTRY IT CAME OUT OF SUCH REALLY IMPORTANT IMPORTANT GOALS IN RESPONSE TO THE OVERUSE OF CERTAIN PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES, BUT FORTUNATELY IT’S NOW A LOT OF IT IS ALL ABOUT MARKETING AS WELL SO THE ORGANIC INDUSTRY HOPES TO PROFIT SO IF THE PUBLIC THINKS THERE IS SOMETHING SCARY OR ENVIRONMENTALLY PROBLEMATIC WITH GENETIC ENGINEERING OR THAT IT IS REALLY DIFFERENT OF COURSE FROM A SCIENTIFIC POINT OF VIEW GENETIC ENGINEERING IS NOT REALLY THAT DIFFERENT THAN MUTAGENESIS OR OTHER TYPES OF GENETIC ALTERATIONS, WELL THEN IT IS HOPING THAT THEY CAN PROFIT IN THAT WAY I THINK… MY IMPRESSION NOW IS THAT IT ALMOST PURELY MARKET DRIVEN THIS VIRULENCE ADAMCHAK: BUT THERE IS ALSO ISSUES IN EUROPE THERE WAS THE OUTBREAK OF MAD COW DISEASE WHICH DISTURBED CONSUMERS BECAUSE SCIENTISTS IN EUROPE HAD ASSURED CONSUMERS FOR YEARS THAT MAD COW DISEASE WASN’T AN ISSUE, WASN’T GOING TO GET INO THE FOOD SUPPLY AND IT WASN’T DANGEROUS BUT IT WAS AND PEOPLE DIED AND I THINK THAT REALLY CAUSED A LOT OF CONCERN IN EUROPE AND HAS LEAD TO FURTHER CONCERN ABOUT GENETIC ENGINEERING SAFETY OF THE FOOD SUPPLY ARNOLD: IT IS LIKE VACCINES WE HAVE THIS TREMENDOUS I DON’T KNOW IF IT AFFECTED YOU HERE BUT IN CALIFORNIA THERE WERE COMMUNITIES…ONE OF THE WEALTHIEST COMMUNITIES IN THE ENTIRE UNITED STATES MARIN COUNTY MANY PARENTS QUIT VACCINATING THEIR CHILDREN BECAUSE THEY HEARD ON T-V A MOVIE ACTRESS AND A MEDICAL GUY NAMED ANDREW WAKEFIELD SAY THAT VACCINES WERE CAUSING AUTISM. MANY, MANY PARENTS, HIGHLY EDUCATED, QUIT VACCINATING THEIR CHILDREN AND TWO YEARS AGO THEY HAD THE LARGEST WHOOPING COUGH OUTBREAK IN THE ENTIRE NATION AND SO HEALTH WORKERS HAD TO GO BACK INTO THE COMMUNITY AND ACTUALLY RE-EDUCATE THEM AS TO WHY WE VACCINATE OUR CHILDREN AND THE LINK HAS NEVER BEEN PROVEN AND SO I THINK IT’S VERY, VERY SIMILAR WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS. THE SAME KINDS OF COMMUNITIES THAT HAVE THIS SORT OF FEAR I MEAN WE ALL LOVE OUR CHILDREN AND SO YOU WORRY AND WE DO HAVE SOME CHARACTERS LIKE ANDREW WAKEFIELD AND THAT ACTRESS IN THE … THAT TALKS TO US ABOUT GENETIC ENGINEERING GREEN: WE HAVE ONE LAST QUESTION BUT BEFORE YOU ASK THAT ONE OF THE THINGS WE WERE TALKING ABOUT AT LUNCH TODAY [1880] WITH PAMELA AND RAOUL WAS MANY OF YOU WILL HAVE READ RECENTLY ABOUT MARK LYNAS IN THE U-K WHO HAD BEEN A VERY STRONG ADVOCATE AGAINST G-M-OS WHO RECENTLY RECANTED THAT AND SAID HE WAS WRONG, HE HAD DISCOVERED SCIENCE AND THAT THIS WAS THE PROMISE FOR THE FUTURE INSTEAD. WE WERE TALKING A LITTLE BIT AT LUNCH TODAY ABOUT WHAT WILL THE REACTION TO THAT BE IN THE LONG TERM TO SEE WHERE THAT GOES. THE LAST QUESTION DOWN HERE ON THE FLOOR QUESTION: RAOUL THIS QUESTION IS FOR YOU IT IS ABOUT FERTILIZERS IT IS MY UNDERSTANDING THE PESTICIDES THAT WE MINE OUT OF THE GROUND LIKE POTASH THAT THEIR ARE LIMITED AMOUNTS OF THOSE ADAMCHAK: PHOSPHORUS QUESTION: SO MY QUESTION IS THEY DON’T JUST BLEED OUT OF THE GROUND DON’T YOU SEE IN THE FUTURE CONVENTIONAL FARMING GOING TO MANURE ANYWAY ADAMCHAK: IT HAS BEEN FASCINATING TO ME THAT THERE WAS A LOT OF TALK ABOUT THE THE END OF PEAK OIL AND HOW WE WERE GOING TO RUN OUT OF OIL AND LIKE FIVE YEARS LATER WE’VE GOT MORE NATURAL GAS THAN WE KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH BUT THE REAL ISSUE MIGHT BE THE END OF PHOSPHORUS THAT MINING PHOSPHORUS AREAS AROUND THE WORLD THAT HAVE PHOSPHORUS ARE BEING MINED OUT AND WITHIN A RELATIVELY SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME WE ARE GOING TO NEED SOME OTHER PHOSPHORUS SOURCE AND IT’S A REALLY GOOD QUESTION OF WHERE IS IT GOING TO COME FROM WE DON’T KNOW .. THERE’S NOT ENOUGH MANURE AND WE MIGHT BE MINING PHOSPHORUS AT A LANDFILL I JUST DON’T KNOW BUT IT IS A GOOD LONG-TERM QUESTION THAT IS NOT BEING ADDRESSED YET RONALD: YOU NEED MANY DIFFERENT WAYS TO WORK AT THIS AND THERE ARE GENETICISTS WORKING TO TRY TO ENHANCE PHOSPHATE ASSIMILATION AND NITROGEN ASSIMILATION TO USE IT MORE EFFICIENTLY GREEN: PLEASE JOIN ME IN THANKING PAMELA AND RAOUL.

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